Science and earth science

Studia Quaternaria

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Studia Quaternaria | 2021 | vol. 38 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Results of the analysis proved that the net primary productivity has a strong connection with the solar insolation. The length of daylight and the level of solar radiation are the driving forces behind changes in growth of primary products, as floral forms are among the first indicators of changes in ecosystems due to global warming. The group of climatic components that have a moderate connection with the bioproductivity of ecosystems of the Polissya are derivatives of bioclimatic indicators related to air temperature, including annual temperature, seasonality, minimum temperature of the coldest month, and the average temperature of the coldest quarter. Seasonality and the annual variation of temperature affect bioproductive processes inversely: the productivity decreases with the increased temperature range between the warmest and the coldest periods of the year and in the middle of quarters.
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Authors and Affiliations

Svitlana Kyriienko
1
Alina Mykolaivna Sliuta
1

  1. T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium” Hetman Polubotok Str. 53, 14013 Chernihiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

The article summarises results of studies on litter concentrations on the Polish sea shore. Origin, mechanism of transport and source of litter are discussed. The main part of the data has been based on litter quality and quantity investigation in post-storm marine sediments. Data were collected in surface sediments since 2001 and in fossil washover fans dated 1988–2000 in different locations on the coast. Litter has been divided according to the material, use, size and origin. Analysis of litter quantity on beaches after storm surges showed an annual increase. The heavier surge, the more debris and mixed litter appear on the coast. A large increase in the amount of litter has been observed after the storm in 2009. The average amount of litter per 1 m2 has increased from 1.5 in 2001 to 17.5 in 2020. Among litter there is still a similar share of fishery and ship waste. The biggest growth was observed in waste of consumable origin. Plastic litter, including anthropogenic waste left on beaches, has increased to 80% in recent years. Most waste occurred on the coast adjacent to the Vistula River mouth.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Arkadiusz Łabuz
1

  1. Institute of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Szczecin, Mickiewicza St. 16, PL-70383 Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract

The soil microbiome is exposed to technogenic influence during the operation of metal structures. There are quantitative and qualitative changes in the microbiota of the technogenic ecosystem. During the study of the technogenic soil ecosystem (ferrosphere), samples of which were taken in the field (Chernihiv, Ukraine: 51°29’58”N, 31°16’09”E), the presence of corrosively active microbial cenosis was established: sulfate-reducing, denitrifying, iron-reducing (using acetate as the only electron donor, and Fe (III) as the only electron acceptor) and ammonifying bacteria. The predominant representatives of corrosively active groups of bacteria were isolated. They were identified as Bacillus simplex, Streptomyces gardneri, Streptomyces canus (ammonifying bacteria), Fictibacillus sp. (ammonifying bacteria with iron-reducing ability), Anaerotignum (Clostridium) propionicum (organic acid-producing bacteria), Desulfovibrio oryzae (sulfate-reducing bacteria) based on some microbiological, physiological and biochemical, genetic features. Strains of heterotrophic and hemolitotrophic bacteria (individual representatives and their associations) isolated from the technogenic ecosystem can be used in both industrial and technological spheres. The interaction of isolated bacteria in the process of microbial induced corrosion is a prospect for further research.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nataliia Tkachuk
1
Liubov Zelena
2

  1. Department of Biology, T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium”, Hetman Polubotok Str. 53, 14013, Chernihiv, Ukraine
  2. Department of Physiology of Industrial Microorganisms, Danylo Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Acad. Zabolotny Str. 154, 03143 Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

Plastics are materials with many properties that make them extremely popular in everyday life and various industries. Studies show that plastic debris is global pollution and widespread in virtually all ecosystems. This study aimed to assess the coastal sediments of Ełckie Lake in terms of the presence of microplastics. Samples of sediments (n = 37) from the coastal zone of Ełckie Lake were drawn from different areas, including urban, rural, and tourist locations, and beaches. After the coastal sediment samples taking, they were subjected to density separation, filtration, and visual evaluation using the Olympus BX63 fluorescent microscope. Particles were classified according to the category of visible characteristics of microplastics including size, shape and colour. The results of the study showed the presence of microplastics in 84% of the examined coastal sediment samples of Ełckie Lake. Fibres, flakes, granules, and foils (films) had found in 58%, 45%, 32%, and 13% of the samples that contained microplastic, respectively. The majority of the detected microplastic was 0.5–1 mm in size and black was the dominant colour. Spatial variability was perceived in microplastic concentrations, giving premises to the assumption of dependence between local human activity and the content of particles.
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Authors and Affiliations

Weronika Rogowska
1
Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz
1
Mirosław Skorbiłowicz
1
Łukasz Trybułowski
1

  1. Bialystok University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Department of Technology in Environmental Engineering, Wiejska 45E, 15-351 Białystok, Poland
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Abstract

The article presents results of the faunistic analysis of the Leb 1 sediment core collected from the marginal zone of the Lake Łebsko. The 5 m long core contained 10,603 specimens of freshwater and brackish-marine fauna, represented by 13 taxa of molluscs, 3 species of ostracods, 2 taxa of foraminifers and a species of the order Coleoptera, and genera Balanus and Gammarus. Lithology of the sediments and species composition of the fauna permitted distinguishing 3 development phases of the Lake Łebsko: brackish-marine phase (500–400 cm), limnic phase with varied salinity (400–100 cm) and swamp phase (100–0 cm), indicating progressive overgrowing of the marginal zone of the lake since the 13th century.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paulina Wojciechowska
1
Adam Wojciechowski
1

  1. Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Institute of Biology and Earth Sciences, ul. Partyzantów 27, 76-200 Słupsk, Poland
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Abstract

In spite of modern trends in the development of the eastern Polesye flora, the relict have been preserved in the aquatic ecotopes of Europe, including eastern Polesye. The paper highlights the peculiarities of the distribution in the region of three aquatic Tertiary relics preserved by the Bern Convention. According to the results of a field research, the degree of a modern rarity of the aquatic relict species in eastern Polesye was established, in particular, a very rare species ( Aldrovanda vesiculosa), a moderately rare species ( Trapa natans) and a relatively rare species ( Salvinia natans). The current distribution of these relict species in the region has been positively affected by the increase in the values of maximum temperatures and isotherms of the summer months. A negative impact is made by the abrupt changes in the hydrological regime and the growth of anthropogenic eutrophication of reservoirs. Aldrovanda vesiculosa eliminates with minor changes in living conditions; Salvinia natans is the most tolerant to anthropogenic factors, but shows annual fluctuations in numbers; Trapa natans is stable distributed and has a tendency to expanding of its populations. The relics are the dominants of the Salvinio–Spirodeletum (polyrrhizae), Lemno–Utricularietum vulgaris, Spirodelo– Aldrovandetum vesiculosae, Trapetum natantis and Trapо–Nymphoidetum (peltatae) communities.
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Authors and Affiliations

Oleksandr Lukash
1
Iryna Miroshnyk
1
Svitlana Strilets
1
Oleksandr Rak
2
Olena Sazonova
1

  1. T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium”, 53, Hetman Polubotko Str., Chernihiv, 14013, Ukraine
  2. M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; 1, Timiriazievska Str., 1, Kyiv, 01014, Ukraine
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Abstract

The research aimed to make an inventory of the vascular flora of 11 parks and gardens of the Pomeranian Cistercian Trail, with particular emphasis on taxa attached to old deciduous forests. A total of 62 species were registered, recognised as indicators of old deciduous forests in Poland. The presence of species of this group was confirmed in all of the analysed objects, but their number varied from 7 to 50. The group of ancient woodland species includes forest species for which the light indicator values are lower than or equal to 4 (plants of shadowy places, with a relative light intensity). The group of indicator species also includes forest geophytes and forest myrmecochores, autochores and barochores, as well as woodland species that can tolerate stress, under the classification of ecological strategy types S, S/CSR, S/SC and S/SR.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Sobisz
1
Marcin Kubus
2
Ewa Szmyt
3
Krzysztof Strzalkowski
3

  1. Department of Botany and Nature Protection, Institute of Biology and Earth Sciences, Pomeranian University, Arciszewski Str., 22A, 76-200 Słupsk
  2. Laboratory of Dendrology and Landscaping of Green Areas, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Papieża PawłaVI 3 Str., 71-459 Szczecin, Poland
  3. Scientific Circle of Botanists, Institute of Biology and Earth Sciences, Pomeranian University, Arciszewski Str., 22A,76-200 Słupsk, Poland
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Abstract

Species and generic composition of nematode communities from the epiphytic mosses in the Left-bank Polesie were studied. Nematodes were extracted by a modified Baermann’s method. A total of 47 species was found and they belonged to 34 genera, 21 families and 8 orders. The average number of nematodes was 4077 per 100 g of the moss. Rhabditida, Tylenchida, Plectida and Dorylaimida composed had more species richness (12, 10, 8 and 7 species, respectively). Species of these four orders comprised 78.7%. Representatives of three order Plectida, Dorylaimida and Monhysterida were the most numerous within the considered communities (proportion in the communities were 40.75, 21.30 and 18.65%, respectively). The majority of the identified species were subrecedent (31 or 65.95% of species composition) and accidental species (37 or 78.72%). Three species: Plectus parietinus Bastian, 1865, Mesodorylaimus bastiani Bütschli, 1873 and Geomonhystera villosa Bütschli, 1873 composed the core of nematode communities from epiphytic mosses in the Left-bank Polesie. They were found in 70.21, 57.45 and 53.19% of the samples, proportion in the community of 15.21, 10.03 and 17.96%, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Valentyna Shevchenko
1
Tetiana Zhylina
1

  1. T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium”, 53, Hetman Polubotko Str., Chernihiv, 14013, Ukraine
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Abstract

In Chernihiv Polesie Solidago canadensis most often grows in ruderal communities of the Berteroëtum incanae association. Characteristic plant species of the Artemisietea vulgaris class have been found in many phytocenoses with Solidago canadensis. A typical ruderal community dominated by S. canadensis was found, in which characteristic species of the xero-mesophytic ruderal vegetation of the Onopordion acanthii are well represented. Initial communities with the S. canadensis coverage of 25 to 60% in combination with the species of this order and the characteristic species of other high syntaxa were found. Most of them are the transformed meadow phytocenoses of the river floodplains and less often – the psammophytic phytocenoses of pine terraces. The process of ruderalization of meadow ecosystems as a result of the invasion of S. canadensis in Chernihiv Polesie was revealed. This process is especially pronounced on the loess islands, where meadows change into semiruderal grasslands and herblands of the Convolvulo arvensis– Agropyrion repentis alliance. S. canadensis invasion leads to xerophytization and unification of the floodplains meadow phytocenoses grassland. The course of these processes is accelerated by anthropogenic pressure on ecosystems and has irreversible consequences. S. canadensis rarely occurs in the Koelerio–Corynephoretea canescentis class psammophytic communities
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Authors and Affiliations

Hanna Danko
1
Oleksandr Lukash
1
Iryna Morozova
1
Volodymyr Boiko
1
Oleksandr Yakovenko
1

  1. T.H. Shevchenko National University “Chernihiv Colehium” Hetman Polubotok Str. 53, 14013 Chernihiv, Ukraine

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