Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin


Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2022 | vol. 53 | No 2

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By conducting an examination of the mapping process in metaphor comprehension, this article suggests that a set of superficially different metaphors can be considered to be isomorphic to an underlying generic metaphor. In other words, a set of seemingly different metaphors with different domains can be categorized under a single generic metaphor. The generic metaphor is in the general form of X is in some kind of semantic relationship with Y. When this generic metaphor is realized in specific-level forms, a number of metaphors are produced which are isomorphic to each other, although their domains could be completely different in appearance. In other words, there is a deep homogeneity among a set of concretely different metaphors. A generic metaphor can be seen as a semantic frame for all specific metaphors that are isomorphic to it. Since base and target domains of a given metaphor can be very different in terms of concrete features, the mapping of the base into the target must be mediated by the domain of its underlying generic metaphor.
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Authors and Affiliations

Omid Khatin-Zadeh
Hassan Banaruee
Babak Yazdani-Fazlabadi

  1. School of Foreign Languages, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China
  2. University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
  3. University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
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Although the COVID-19 vaccine has been recommended as the safer and more effective prevention for COVID-19 disease relative to other alternative medications, yet across the globe, many people are resistant to receiving it. Setting out to explain such a paradox, we conducted an online survey among a sample of Indonesians (N = 4758) when the World Health Organisation (WHO) granted authorisations for the clinical trial of various vaccines against COVID-19. The results revealed that participants’ support for theories that the COVID-19 vaccine is invented to harm their nation (i.e., COVID-19 vaccine conspiratorial beliefs) positively corresponded with the perceptions that international collaboration in the COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial is not aligned with their nation’s actual needs (i.e., the perceived assumptive international collaboration) and negative attitudes towards the vaccine. In turn, the perceived assumptive international collaboration was positively related to negative attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccine. We also showed that the positive relationship between COVID-19 vaccine conspiratorial beliefs and the perceived assumptive international collaboration in the vaccine clinical trial was more prominent among participants who were strongly resistant to take vaccines supplied by other countries due to national pride (i.e., vaccine national glorification).
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Authors and Affiliations

Ali Mashuri
Dian Putri Permatasari
Ratri Nurwanti
Sofia Nuryanti

  1. Department of Psychology, Universitas Brawijaya, ‎Indonesia
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Sensory processing sensitivity is a relatively new theoretical construct. Its main components include deeper processing of stimuli as well as a stronger response to environmental impacts, both positive and negative. The effect of misinformation, which involves the inclusion of misinformation in the witness's memory reports, can be modified by varied factors, including personality characteristics. To the knowledge of the authors, no such research has been conducted so far and thereby the aim of the following study was to examine the relationship between the sensory processing sensitivity and susceptibility to the misinformation effect. Group studies were carried out according to the three-stage scheme of investigating the misinformation effect. After the original material was presented, the participants were exposed to a post-event material, containing the misinformation in the experimental group. Then the memory of the original material was tested. A strong misinformation effect was shown. Highly sensitive people, achieving the highest results in the Highly Sensitive Person Scale, were more resistant to the misinformation effect.
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Authors and Affiliations

Szymon Kamil Sadowski
Malwina Szpitalak

  1. Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland
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The purpose of the study is to determine the characteristic features of personal functioning at different stages of professional development. The survey involved 139 professionals from various fields (74 women and 65 men) aged 24 to 67 years. The sample is divided into 5 groups according to the stage of professional development. A comparative analysis of groups by parameters of professional self-realisation, emotional burnout and psychological well-being is carried out. The results obtained demonstrate the nonlinear, complex dynamics of self-realisation of the individual throughout life and clarify the internal mechanisms of professional development at each stage. The stages of primary and secondary professionalisation are accompanied by the greatest need for self-improvement and at the same time, exaggerated and unrealistic ideas about one's own professional competence. An increased symptomatology of emotional burnout has been identified, which accompanies the peak of professional excellence and determines the next stage of professional activity decline after 30 years of work experience. The coincidence of the normative age and professional crises entails a profound crisis of the pre-retirement age, which is characterised primarily by a loss of goal-setting. People who continue to work in the post-retirement age have the highest rates of self-fulfillment, which leads to overall satisfaction with life and self. The described patterns open new perspectives for the development of ways of psychological counselling and organisational support of specialists.
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Authors and Affiliations

Vitalii Y. Bocheliuk
Liana V. Spytska
Iryna V. Shaposhnykova
Anastasiia V. Turubarova
Mykyta S. Panov

  1. Zaporizhzhia Polytechnic National University, Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine
  2. Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University, Severodonetsk, Ukraine
  3. Kherson State University, Kherson, Ukraine
  4. Khortytsia National Educational Rehabilitation Academy, Khortytsia, Ukraine
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Inspired by the recent avenues for longitudinal research in second language acquisition (SLA), in this study we aimed to trace changes in language mindsets over time via a curve of factors model. The data were collected from 437 adult English as a foreign language learners’ response to the Language Mindsets Index in four time points. The model fit was accepted and the invariance of the latent factor was attested over time. The findings indicated a negative covariance between the initial level language mindsets and the growth level of the construct. This finding implies that learners with a highly initial level of language mindsets experienced less change in the construct over time and those with a lower level of the construct changed their mindsets more over time. Pedagogical implications of the findings such as language teachers’ consideration of growth language mindsets interventions are discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Majid Elahi Shirvan
Tahereh Taherian
Elham Yazdanmehr
Esmaeel Saeedy Robat

  1. University of Bojnord, Iran
  2. Yazd University, Iran
  3. Attar Institute of Higher Education, Iran
  4. Department of Education, Taybad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Taybad, Iran
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Challenging job demands are those which require the use of high energy and thus may impair health but bring positive consequences too. The present study aimed to construct a measure for challenging job demands for university teachers.
Methods: The study is based upon the model developed by Makhdoom and Malik (2018) which proposed three challenging job demands including Regulatory Load, Social Load, and Cognitive Demands. On the basis of the literature review, Time Pressure was also studied as a factor. First of all, the authors created an initial item pool of 19 items which were categorized into four factors. The finalized item pool was administered on two independent samples drawn from various universities of Pakistan. In the first stage, the university teachers (N = 201) from three universities of the Punjab province were approached. EFA concluded three-factor and 13 items, which were then administered upon a sample of university teachers (N = 600).
Results: The CFA confirmed the three-factor structure of challenging job demands including Time Pressure, Cognitive Demands and Social Load. All the fit indices were within an acceptable range. The values of factor loadings and Cronbach Alpha justified the internal consistency and psychometric soundness of the newly developed measure.
Discussion: The study concludes a psychometrically sound scale to measure challenging job demands in university teachers which will be helpful in future studies. The limitations of the study along with suggestions for future research and important theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Irsa Fatima Makhdoom
Najma Iqbal Malik
Mohsin Atta

  1. University of Sargosha, Pakistan
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Background: The phenomenon of accumulating tasks, characteristic of emerging adulthood, intensifies perceived stress and stimulates coping activity. The nature and intensity of the coping strategies used to deal with challenges can affect mental health in emerging adulthood. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between coping strategies and mental health in a group of emerging adults- students in higher education.
Methods: The study included 390 emerging adults, students in higher education. Coping strategies were measured with the COPE Questionnaire and information on mental health was called using the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with maximum likelihood (ML) estimation was used to assess the factor structure of the variables and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses.
Results: The data mostly confirmed the hypotheses. Avoidance strategies turned out to be the strongest predictor of mental health, specifically negative mental health outcomes. Problem-focused strategies were a stronger predictor of quality of life than emotion-focused and support-seeking strategies. Emotion-focused strategies did not predict depression. Coping strategies, especially avoidance strategies, play a crucial role in mental health during emerging adulthood.
Conclusions: Learning to cope enables students to deal with difficult tasks and challenges of this period more effectively, and minimizes their risk of depression, and increases their life satisfaction.
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Authors and Affiliations

Karol Konaszewski
Małgorzata Niesiobędzka
Marcin Kolemba

  1. University of Bialystok, Faculty of Education, Poland
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Having established students` life values, the role of religion in its structure, it is possible to predict the future development of society. The purpose of this study is to analyse the religious value orientations influence on student society and to determine the influence nature of religious orientations in the system of value orientations on the daily behaviour of students. This study is based on the research of students' religious orientations in the Tyumen region conducted in 2021. The study was conducted in the context of a basic long-term research of the student's value priorities in the Tyumen region. The methodological basis of the research is the key provisions of social philosophy, sociology and psychology of religion, sociology of personality, sociology of youth and social psychology. Based on the results of an empirical study, the authors characterised the religiosity of the modern youth and determined the impact nature of religious orientations on everyday behaviour. The practical significance of the study is that the empirical data obtained can be used by civil society to prevent the spread of radical religious ideas among students, to involve the data in the activities of organisations dealing with extremism. The results obtained in the course of the study allow developing interaction projects between universities, student associations, and religious associations in the implementation of numerous state youth policy areas, which sets the "possible impact" boundaries of religious associations on cooperation with students.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yulia P. Savickaya
Yuliya I. Koltunova
Tatiana E. Derikot

  1. Industrial University of Tyumen, Tyumen, Russian Federation

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