Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin

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Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2021 | vol. 52 | No 2 |

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Abstract

According to the social psychological literature, egoistic relative deprivation impairs well-being but has at most little impact on political protest and engagement. We considered this view incomplete and over-simplifying. It was predicted that egoistic relative deprivation itself may impair democracy by increasing support for populism, and that the postulated relationship will be mediated by dysphoric affect, political alienation, and political paranoia. The empirical basis of the article were three studies carried out on nationwide random-quota samples of adult Poles: in 2002 (N = 1500), in 2010 (N = 800), and in 2017 (N = 2000). It was found that support for populism systematically depends directly on dysphoric affect and political paranoia, which are strengthened by egoistic relative deprivation. In 2017, with populist political groupings in power in Poland, the role of political alienation turned out to be ambiguous. Political alienation slightly strengthened political paranoia but directly lowered support for populism. In conclusion it was noted that in Poland's history and in the contemporary Polish mentality there is a great potential for negative affect, pessimism and bitterness. Relative deprivation experienced today successfully maintains this potential.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Korzeniowski
1

  1. Polish Academy of Sciences
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Abstract

Little is known as to what extent the pandemic lockdown has changed the perceived level of stress and stress- coping strategies. In response to this gap we present the results of quantitative and qualitative studies on stress levels and coping with stress conducted among Polish adults during the COVID-19 lockdown. The first study indicates that the lockdown has changed stress appraisal moderately, and it has also affected stress-coping strategies in various areas. The second study reveals miscellaneous reasons for stress appraisal (health, economic, political, social, freedom restriction, and religious). Participants perceived pandemic and lockdown as a moderate stressor, more as a challenge than a threat. Moreover the avoidant style recognized as the most adaptive reaction on stress in our study, confirms that people have a natural ability to adapt to unpredictable and unexpected situations like COVID-19 lockdown.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marzena Lelek-Kratiuk
1
Monika Szczygieł
1

  1. Pedagogical University of Krakow
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Abstract

This article looks at metaphor aptness from the perspective of the class-inclusion model of metaphor comprehension and those models that assume a componential nature for the meanings of concepts. When the metaphor X is a Y is processed, the concept of X is included in a metaphorical class that is represented by Y, which is usually the most typical member of the metaphorical class. Degree of saliency of the defining feature in the vehicle and the extent to which this feature matches a relevant dimension of topic is the key factor in the degree of aptness of the metaphor. Degree of aptness becomes more complex in those metaphors that describe an abstract concept in terms of another concept. These metaphors include X into a metaphorical class through the mediation of those concepts that are associated to the abstract concept. If the associated concepts have a high degree of typicality in the metaphorical class, they could be better mediators for including the abstract concept into the metaphorical class. The variations of abstract concepts across individuals and their dependency on contexts and cultures could explain why such metaphors may have different degrees of aptness for different people.
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Authors and Affiliations

Omid Khatin-Zadeh
1
Zahra Eskandari
2

  1. School of Foreign Languages, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
  2. Chabahar Maritime University
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Abstract

Objective: The current study aims to investigate, which of the factors are directly and indirectly associated with disordered eating in a non-clinical population of university students in Slovakia. Methods: 302 university students (52.3% female, M age=21) filled in a questionnaire assessing the perceived pressure to be thin, the internalization of appearance ideals, disordered eating, satisfaction of basic psychological needs and the regulation of exercise. The hypothesized model was tested with a parallel multiple mediation analysis using PROCESS macro.
Results: The pressure to be thin from partner, the internalization of appearance ideals and the controlled regulation of exercise were directly associated with disordered eating. The pressure to be thin from media was indirectly associated with disordered eating through the internalization of appearance ideals. The pressure to be thin from partner and from family as well as satisfaction of the need for competence were indirectly associated with disordered eating through the controlled regulation of exercise.
Conclusions: The results of the current study support the focus of the existing eating disorder interventions at decreasing the internalization of sociocultural appearance ideals. The results suggest the usefulness of incorporating the promotion of autonomous regulation of behaviour, especially with regard to exercising, within the prevention and intervention field.
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Authors and Affiliations

Eva Paulisova
1
Olga Orosova
2
Lucia Barbierik
2

  1. Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, Faculty of Arts, Department of Psychology, Kosice
  2. Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, Faculty of Arts, Department of Educational Psychology and Psychology of Health, Kosice
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Abstract

This study was designed to explore the relationship between family functioning, coping strategies, and psychological well-being (PWB). It is hypothesized that coping strategies would mediate the relationship between family functioning and PWB. Data were collected from participants during lockdown (N = 224) including male (n=97) and female (n=127) by using a convenient sampling technique. Family functioning, Coping strategies, and PWB were measured using the ICPS Family Functioning Scale, Cope Inventory, and Flourishing Scale, respectively. The Pearson product-moment correlation analysis indicated a significant relationship among family functions sub-scales, coping strategies sub-scales, and PWB. The results suggested a mediating role of active coping between subscales of family functioning and psychological well-being.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sheharyar Ahmad
1
Lubna Nasreen
2
Sumaya Batool
3
Shazia Khalid
4

  1. Beaconhouse National University
  2. University of Punjab
  3. University of Sargodha
  4. Preston University Kohat, Islamabad Campus
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Abstract

Social media has revolutionized the way people communicate with each other, the whole world is now available on the screen of a smartphone. People who seemed too distant until yesterday are now available in seconds via a network connection. Smartphone and social media overcome the limitations of remoteness by introducing relationships between people into a completely different dimension. They were supposed to serve mainly as facilitating communication with loved ones, but with time they started to create the surrounding reality. The aim of the article is to present the issues related to the problematic use of social media. The most popular social network sites (SNS) will be presented first, along with their functions, number of users and the reasons why people use them so often. Then, issues related to problematic use of social media will be presented, such as: symptoms, questionnaire methods and consequences. Finally, the author discusses the risk factors of excessive of social media.
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Authors and Affiliations

Robert Modrzyński
1

  1. Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
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Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of emotional and psychological behavior indicators in children aged 7-8 years in modern society. The study was conducted in 2018-2019 in Moscow (Russian Federation) and included a total of 600 children of the second – third grades in three secondary schools. The first group included children from families with high social status and higher education of both parents, the second group comprised children from middle- class families with secondary special education of parents, and the third group enrolled children from low-income families with incomplete secondary education of parents. Children were tested for aggressiveness as well as attitudes toward family members. It has been established that in the first group, the model of upbringing was dominated by hyper- socialization of the authoritarian type. In the second group, the model of education was more balanced, symbiosis and cooperation dominated, exceeding the other parameters by 1.3–1.9 times (p ≤ 0.05). In the third group, average and high levels of aggression were stated to be significantly higher – 1.6–2.2 times (p ≤ 0.01). In the third and first groups, there was a direct connection between the frequency of instrumental aggression and negative attitude towards siblings (0.65 and 0.84, respectively).
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Authors and Affiliations

Sergey Khrameshin
1
Natalya Antsiferova
2
Marina Seluch
3
Zukhra Ismailova
4
Svetlana Kozlovskaya
5

  1. Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy
  2. Department of State, Municipal Management and Law, Kursk Academy of State and Municipal Service
  3. Department of Psychology and Pedagogy, Amur State University
  4. Department of Professional Education and Physical Education, Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural Mechanization Engineers
  5. Department of Social Work, Russian State Social University
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Abstract

The present study examined the mediating role of ego depletion sensitivity between temperaments and subjective vitality. The sample of the present research consisted of 210 undergraduate students of the University of Sargodha. Temperament, ego depletion sensitivity, and subjective vitality were operationalized through Approach- Avoidance Temperament Questionnaire (Elliot & Thrash, 2010), Depletion Sensitivity Scale (Salmon et al., 2014), and Subjective Vitality Scale (Ryan & Frederick, 1997), respectively. Correlation analysis depicted that ego depletion sensitivity was positively correlated with avoidance temperament and negatively correlated with subjective vitality. Furthermore, ego depletion sensitivity mediated between avoidance temperament and subjective vitality. Implications of the study along with its limitations and suggestions were discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adnan Adil
1
Asmara Kanwal
1
Ghulam Yasin
2
Sadaf Ameer
1

  1. Department of Psychology, University of Sargodha
  2. Department of Sociology and Criminology, University of Sargodha

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