Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin

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Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2020 | vol. 51 | No 2

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Abstract

Despite the large number of studies conducted on teachers’ oral corrective feedback, the findings of these studies have been mainly limited to cognitive orientations rooted in experimental designs and the verbal discourse of the teacher as the main object of inquiry. Considering teachers’ affective concerns regarding their corrective feedback and the shift from negative psychology to positive psychology in the field of second/foreign language teaching as well as the entirety of the teacher’s corrective repertoire, in this case study, we aimed to explore the enjoyment building capacity of a teacher’s multimodal corrective feedback in a university general English course. We video-recorded the teacher’s multimodal corrective feedback including verbal and nonverbal semiotic resources like gesture, gaze, and posture while observing the learners’ emotional experiences for eight sessions. We also conducted stimulated recall interviews with some learners and collected their written journals about the experiences of enjoyment with regard to the teacher’s multimodal corrective feedback scenarios. The teacher’s multimodal corrective feedback was analyzed through systemic functional multimodal discourse analysis (SF-MDA) and the content of the interview transcripts as well as the written journals were qualitatively analyzed. The findings indicated that the teacher’s inherent multimodality in his corrective feedback broadened the main dimensions of enjoyment by raising the learners’ attention to their errors, heightening their focus on the correct form, and increasing the salience of his corrective feedback. Further arguments regarding the findings are discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mokarrameh Bayat
Majid Elahi Shirvan
ORCID: ORCID
Elyas Barabadi
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Abstract

Student engagement and burnout have become the latest focus of attention among researchers and practitioners. This is because both are seen as the main factors connected with the meaningful and purposeful educational activities that lead to high learning outcomes and better physical and mental health. Specifically, burnout decreases, and engagements heightened these characteristics.

The aim of the present study was to explore the relationships between alienation, engagement and burnout in an educational context. Additionally, the mediation role of school engagement on the association between alienation and burnout was tested.

The study was conducted among 109 early adolescents, aged 13–15 years (NFemale=52). ESSBS (Elementary Student School Burnout Scale), PAI (Alienation Inventory – Short Form) and SSEM (Student School Engagement Scale) were used to measure the levels of burnout, alienation and engagement, respectively.

The results indicated that higher alienation was associated with lower engagement and with higher school burnout. Student engagement, productivity and belonging significantly mediated the links between alienation total score, normlessness, powerlessness and school burnout. The path analysis revealed that normlessness significantly predicted student engagement (-.44) and school burnout (-.20). The model explained 31% of the variances for school engagement, and 46% of the variances for school burnout.

In conclusion, alienated students – especially those suffering from normlessness – feel disconnected and overwhelmed by school duties. In addition, to diminish the risk of alienation and burnout in a school context of students, educational practitioners should include school engagement (especially belonging and productivity) improvement as one of the most significant protective factors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Tomaszek
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Abstract

This study included investigation of efficiency of the threshold used to classify symptoms as present, investigation of efficiency of the cut-off point used to identify potentially addicted to work individuals, investigation of magnitude of the problem of class overlap, and investigation of effects of dichotomization of polytomous items on the estimates of the latent trait level. The sample comprised 16,426 working Norwegians (Mage = 37.31; SD = 11.36) who filled out the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS). The results showed that the difficulty/third threshold parameters corresponding to the threshold used to classify symptoms as present were lower than 1.5 for the items corresponding to tolerance and conflict and higher than or equal to 1.5 for the items corresponding to salience, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, and problems. The cut-off point used to identify individuals as potentially addicted to work identified 411 individuals (31.9% of all individuals classified by the polythetic approach as potentially addicted to work) whose estimates of the latent trait level were lower than 1.5 as potentially addicted to work. The problem of class overlap (being classified by the polythetic approach into different class despite almost the same level of the latent trait) affected 4,686 individuals (28.5% of the whole sample). The dichotomization of polytomous items had a substantial effect on the estimates of the latent trait level. The findings show that the polythetic approach is not efficient in identifying potentially addicted to work individuals and that the prevalence rates of work addiction based on the polythetic approach are not trustworthy.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Bereznowski
Roman Konarski
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Abstract

Values define the directions of human activities and are related to people’s motivation to undertake specific activities and roles (Schwartz, 1994; Brown, 2002). Researchers and employers observe differences in motivation to work among representatives of different generations and genders (Twenge, Campbell, & Freeman, 2012; Gursoy & Karadag, 2013). In this research project, the authors asked what motivated contemporary employees, whether the intensity of their motives was different in different generations, what relationships there were between the dominant work motives and employees’ dominant values, and whether there were differences between women and men regarding work motives. To verify the hypotheses, they conducted a study with a sample of 307 professionally active people. They used their own Types of Work Motives Questionnaire designed for the purposes of the study and the Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ; Wilson & Murrell, 2004). The obtained results indicate that younger employees choose the kind of work that gives them comfort and adequate pay. Regardless of age, however, social security support is the most important for all groups of respondents. For women, security and social security support are important at work. Moreover, the study has shown that there is a relationship between work values and work motives. For example people who appreciate values such as friendship and stability are motivated to work by good relationships and security, those who value recreation and stability are motivated by comfort and salary, those for whom respect and education are crucial are motivated by the possibility of development etc.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dorota Godlewska-Werner
Aleksandra Peplińska
Anna Maria Zawadzka
Piotr Połomski
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Abstract

People appear in the courtroom when they engage in various disputes with others and have diverse problems of their own. The courts are supposed to provide them with a space where they can obtain justice, in accordance with the law. It is no less important, however, that while pursuing this goal the courts should deal with people’s problems in a way that makes the people willing to accept and comply with their decisions. The central issue defining the scope of this empirical study was the question of what element of the construct of procedural justice promotes behaviors associated with legitimacy and compliance with the law in the Polish judicial system. The author set out to investigate what identified procedural justice in Polish legal culture and what variables pertaining to the context of legal proceedings it was related to. The sample consisted of 115 individuals taking part in civil court proceedings conducted in civil divisions of district courts. Based on analyses performed on research results it can be concluded that behaviors associated with legitimacy and compliance with the law in the Polish judicial system is determined by the sense of fairness experienced in the courtroom, whose structure is built by experiences such as being given the opportunity to speak, being treated with respect, the judge’s impartiality, the comprehensibility of the language used and procedures applied in the courtroom, and the sense of influence on the final outcome of the proceedings.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Prusiński
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Abstract

The functioning of a person affected with a chronic illness within a family is a complex and many-sided issue.

As family members form a system reflecting a network of mutual relations, one of the members’ illness will affect all those interacting with him / her emotionally. Keeping high-quality marital relations also becomes extremely difficult. The research covered 108 families (216 person) divided into three groups.We used an interview, the FACES IV questionnaire based on the Circumplex Model by David H. Olson and Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) developed by Spanier.

Presence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the family turned out to impact its functioning. The present research has found that the spouses’ gender of key importance for the family. Those families in which the woman was ill were characterized by excessive rigidity. On the other hand, where the multiple sclerosis sufferer was male, the system was overly chaotic.

Based on the research, it is highly probable that the majority of families with multiple sclerosis sufferers adjust relatively well to the disease. It can be supposed that the majority of multiple sclerosis affected families have developed an adaptive mechanism that benefits the patient. Supposedly, successful coping with disease may be determined by the caregiver's gender. This does not mean, however, that such families are free from problems. The difficulties relate primarily to communication, excessive autocracy, developing their individuality and autonomy. Therapeutic support for the patient and his / her family should therefore be a vital component of the treatment process.

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Authors and Affiliations

Natalia Treder-Rochna
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Abstract

During occupational trainings given to Polish employees, one can quite often observe complaining. The instructor can use it for problem-solving or for purification. Thus, complaining plays an instrumental or cathartic function. This has consequences for the entire training process. The aim of the article is to present the phenomenon of complaining during training courses and to discuss its correlation with different variables such as learning results, participants’ mood and the evaluation of the training course. Questions were therefore posed about which function of complaining would be more conducive to the process of learning the material and result in an improvement of the participants’ mood, as well as how the instructor would be evaluated, at the response level, depending on which function of complaining is activated during the training. In order to answer these questions, the authors designed an experiment in which complaining was induced in members of an organization, performing either an instrumental function or a cathartic function. The results show that the most effective strategy is the use of its object as a point of departure for problem solution.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marta Damroka Kaliszewska
Dorota Godlewska-Werner
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Abstract

Schwartz created a circle of values reflecting people’s individual systems of goals and motivations. These values can be grouped into different dimensions: self-protection versus self-growth and concentration on others versus concentration on self. In the present study, we analysed how these dimensions are related to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being; N=747 participants, representative of the general Polish population, completed the Portraits Value Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Questionnaire for Eudaimonic Well-being (online study). A series of models were tested using structural equation modelling. We found that concern for self and self-protection values were related to higher hedonic well-being, whereas concern for others and growth values were related to its lower levels. However, growth and concern for others were positively linked to eudaimonic well-being, but they may also positively and indirectly impact hedonic well-being (suppression effect). These results suggest that some values are associated with a feeling of self-realisation at the cost of current hedonic well-being.

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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Bojanowska
Agnieszka Czerw

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