Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin

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Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2018 | vol. 49 | No 3: Advances in research on performance anxiety |

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Abstract

This paper investigates attachment themes in the life history narratives of professional orchestral musicians and their relationship with music performance anxiety (MPA). Narrative accounts derived from open -ended in -depth interviews of ten professional musicians were analysed from an attachment perspective using content and thematic analysis. We hypothesized that the performance setting re -triggers unprocessed feelings related to early attachment experiences, especially when traumatic, and that defensive manoeuvres against their re -emergence into consciousness are activated. The interviews identified early relational trauma as a relevant etiological factor in the MPA -symptomatic of the musicians studied. A case is made for the addition of an attachment -informed life -course model rather than a purely symptomatic approach to understanding and treating severe MPA and other intra -personal psychodynamics of performing musicians.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dianna T. Kenny
Jeremy Holmes
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Abstract

Research shows that positive affective displays in customer service interactions are positively related to customers’ perception of overall service quality. Consequently, the way customer service employees manage their feelings is seen as an important aspect of providing their services. In most service contexts, employees are expected to express positive emotions, e.g., be cheerful and suppress negative emotions, such as resentment. Emotional labor is regarded as a type of impression management, because it involves deliberate effort undertaken by service workers in order to adhere to organizational display rules when dealing with customers. Surface acting is an emotional labor strategy and consists of managing observable emotional expression without modifying underlying genuine feelings (service with a fake smile). Research shows that surface acting is positively related to employee burnout. The present study (N=180) was designed to examine the effects of surface acting on emotional exhaustion while controlling for employees’ trait emotional intelligence. The results demonstrated that employees who declared greater use of surface acting during their interactions with customers reported more symptoms of emotional exhaustion. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only among employees low in trait emotional intelligence. The discussion encompasses the implications these results may have for managing emotional expression in public performance that may result in reducing performance anxiety.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dorota Szczygieł
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Abstract

Learned helplessness is often studied as a consequence of repetitive failure in a performance domain and is usually associated with the experience of uncontrollability over future outcomes. The premise of this review article is first to establish initial support towards the notion of learned helplessness seen in the context of sports performance. Furthermore, the role of performance anxiety and maladaptive perfectionism will be introduced to strengthen the idea that thinking traits impact motor performance especially when these traits moderate the effects of consecutive failure experience. Finally the paper will focus on a typical profile of an athlete who would be susceptible to choking under pressure as an outcome of perceived uncontrollability and performance anxiety. Burnout and potential interventions will be discussed later.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sindhuja Sankaran
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Abstract

The major aim of the research is to analyse the type and complexity of emotions which adolescent musicians experience before giving a solo music performance. Another aim is to explore the function of these emotions for performance quality. Just before a school concert, students filled out The UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL). Right after the performance, both the performing students and competent referees used The Performance Evaluation Scale. The results show that musicians’ pre -performance emotional state is dominated by ambivalent emotions of hope and sadness, as well as joy and anxiety. As a result of a cluster analysis, six clusters were obtained which defined emotional states before the performance: high music performance anxiety, moderate music performance anxiety, calm, mixed emotions, joy with background fatigue, and excitement. The findings show the functional significance of positive emotions and mixed emotions for performance quality.
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Authors and Affiliations

Julia Kaleńska-Rodzaj
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Abstract

The main objective of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory – Revised (K -MPAI -R, Kenny, 2009) modified as the Kenny Performance Anxiety Inventory (K -PAI) for a general population of individuals with experience in public performance in fields other than music. Another aim was to test the factor structure of K -PAI on a Polish sample. We analysed the relationship between the scores on K -PAI and general anxiety, depression, attentional control, the scores on the Behavioural Inhibition Scale (BIS) and the Behavioural Activation Scale (BAS) and reward susceptibility. Participants (N = 586) completed the questionnaires in a wider online study. The scores on K -PAI revealed a moderate to strong positive association with different measures of anxiety, trait -anxiety in particular, and negative associations with attentional control and susceptibility to reward. K -PAI scores were strongly associated with depression, but displayed no relationship with the BAS or any of its sub -dimensions. These results generally replicated those obtained on the K -MPAI -R with Australian and Peruvian musicians, indicating the cross -cultural validity of the K -MPAI -R and K -PAI. It is suggested that performance anxiety develops on the basis of the biological predispositions and early negative experiences in performance contexts.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Kantor-Martynuska
Dianna T. Kenny
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Abstract

According to Erik H. Erikson parental committal to children’s development is one of the most important developmental task in the medium adulthood. In this stage society requires the person to play the role of a productive and contributing member of society. On the other hand variety of changes in adolescence and their peculiar cause that relationship between parents and adolescents is problematical, so parents’ generativity is a potential that has a positive impact on the progress of the child’s ontogenetic changes. It is also a manifestation of correctly progressing development of adults. Specific actions undertaken by parents, revealing their generativity, are related with showing interests, emotional and cognitive support of a child, accepting his increasing independence and offering help in new, difficult situations associated with physiological puberty and social maturation. Seeking methods supporting the development of adolescent children, adequate to their developmental needs, evokes developmental potential of parents. Taking into consideration the dual aspect underlying the generative activity, the following dimensions of parental generativity revealed towards adolescent children have been determined: interest, active help, consent and sense of creativity. The article shall present an original take on parental generativity and the process of constructing the Parental Generativity Scale.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lucyna Teresa Bakiera
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Abstract

Objectives: Relapse is very much associated with the management of disorder during the treatment, but also many other factors could trigger it. The aim of this study was to explore classes and patterns of relapse risk in patients with schizophrenia of Razi Hospital. Methods: Using random sampling techniques, we recruited 300 participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in Razi hospital of Tehran (Iran) between January and May 2017 in a cross -sectional survey. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to establish a baseline model of risk profiles and to identify the optimal number of latent classes, and we used ordinal regression to identify factors associated with class membership. Results: Three classes of multiple relapse risk were identified. LCA showed that, overall, 52%, 22% and 26% of participants with schizophrenia were divided into class 1, class 2 and class 3, respectively. Compared to members in the lowest -risk class (reference group), the highest -risk class members had higher odds of being the age of disorder onset under 25 (OR = 1.4; CI: 1.42–2.33). Participants with schizophrenia who were unemployed were more likely to categorize in the highest -risk class than members of the low -risk class (OR = 2.5; CI: 1.44–4.1). Also, female patients were more likely to belong to members of the high -risk class than members of the low -risk class (OR = 2.22; CI: 1.74–7.64). Conclusion: These findings emphasize the importance of having targeted prevention programs for all domains of Age of onset, female and unemployed related. So, current study suggested that interventions should focus on these risk factors. Furthermore, Increasing the Job opportunities for participants with schizophrenia is warranted so as to prevent of schizophrenia disorder.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mehdi Noroozi
Neda Alibeigi
Bahram Armoon
Omid Rezaei
Mohammad Sayadnasiri
Somayeh Nejati
Farbod Fadaei
Davood Arab Ghahestany
Bahman Dieji
Elahe Ahounbar
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Abstract

Theory and practice of sport psychology suggest that emotional and behavioral states of anxiety and aggression both affect athletic performance. The aim of the present study was the investigation of possible differentiation among water -polo male and female players according to their anxiety, anger and aggression levels. The sample consisted of 225 players (120 men, 105 women), between the ages of 17–39 years old. They completed the Greek versions of the: (a) CSAI -2, and (b) CAAS instruments. Results revealed differences among almost all questionnaire variables, between sport (athletic) experience’ groups. Finally, male athletes of the 2nd national division identified greater levels of anger and aggression in comparison to all other division groups. Overall, results shine some light on facets that play an important role and can affect the athletic performance of water -polo players.
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Authors and Affiliations

Evangelos Bebetsos
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Abstract

Consumer ethnocentrism is a concept defined as a consequent and conscious preference for local products over foreign, usually measured by using CETSCALE (Shimp & Sharma, 1987). Besides its popularity, this scale is criticized because of its too strong a normative and ideological character. We assume that consumer ethnocentrism also has a psychological aspect – it can be more automatic, sometimes unconscious, and also based on social identification mechanisms. To investigate these assumptions, we conducted three studies. The first one (N = 590), which was conducted in Poland, validated a new tool to measure consumer ethnocentrism: SCONET – a 6 -item scale, and its relation to brand preference (BPM). Moreover, we used Cameron’s social identification scale (Cameron, 2004). The analysis showed that social identification with one’s own group does not directly explain the choice of foreign vs. local products (BPM) but this relationship is moderated by consumer ethnocentrism (measured by SCONET). The second study, conducted in Poland on a representative nationwide sample (N = 1002), confirmed that SCONET is a single -factor scale with good statistical parameters (confirmatory factor analysis). The third study, conducted in Indonesia (N = 323), was a cross -cultural validation of the SCONET scale and explored the relationship found in study 1 in other cultures. The results confirmed the relationship between SCONET, social identity, and brand preference (BPM) that was found in Poland.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dominika Maison
Rahkman Ardi
Jony Eko Yulianto
Cicilia Larasati Rembulan
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Abstract

The present study aims to scrutinize teacher motivation in relation to two individual level predictors, namely, self -efficacy and burnout among English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers. To this end, 142 English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers were selected from various English language institutes of Mashhad and Tehran, two cities in Iran. They were requested to complete three questionnaires: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale, and the Work Tasks Motivation Scale for Teachers. The findings obtained via SEM revealed that the proposed model had a good fit with the empirical data. In particular, it was found that job motivation contributed significantly to burnout depletion. It was also revealed that self -efficacy positively predicted job motivation, and burnout negatively influenced self -efficacy. However, self -efficacy surpassed motivation in predicting EFL instructors’ burnout. Results were discussed from both theoretical standpoints as well as previous empirical findings. Finally, implications were presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Afsaneh Ghanizadeh
Nahid Royaei
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Abstract

The objective of the study was the comparative analysis of areas of Internet behavior (use of Internet, relations and Internet Addiction) with regards to gender in seven years’ perspective. The study was conducted in two stages (2005 and 2012) among Polish students (N = 452). Results showed significant gender differences in the use of Internet. The use of Internet is no longer predictor of Internet Addiction in both men and women. The higher number of contacts limited to Internet was a predictor of Internet Addiction in both men and women, but lower self -esteem in women only. Men were more prone to Internet Addiction in comparison with women and this tendency is on the rise.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dominika Ochnik
Aleksandra Dembińska

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