Life Sciences and Agriculture

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

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Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | 2022 | vol. 25 | No 1

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Abstract

In this study, the cryoprotective effect of different doses of propolis (P) on bull semen, which has solid pharmacological properties thanks to its rich phenolic components, was investigated biochemically and physiologically. Semen samples were collected from Simmental breed bulls via the artificial vagina and pooled. After dividing into five groups, control (C: no additive) and four different P (200, 100, 50, and 25 μg/mL) groups, the final concentration was diluted to 16×106 per straw. Semen samples were equilibrated at 4°C for approximately 4 hours, then placed in French straws and frozen. After thawing, sperm motility and kinetic parameters, DNA integrity by single-cell gel electrophoresis, sperm abnormalities by liquid fixation, and lipid peroxidation levels by the colorimetric method was analyzed by Computer-Assisted Semen Analyzer. P added to the diluent showed no effect on motility and kinetic parameters at P25 and P50 (p>0.05), while P100 and P200 had a negative effect (p<0.001). The addition of P (25 and 50) showed a treatment effect on tail abnormality compared to C (p<0.05). Especially P50 had a positive effect on tail length, tail DNA, and tail movement, while P100 and P200 caused DNA damage (p<0.001). MDA levels increased in all P dose groups compared to C (p<0.001). This study has clearly demonstrated that P25 and P50 supplements could be used therapeutically to treat sperm tail abnormalities and prevent DNA damage in post-thawed bull sperm.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Yeni
1
M.F. Gülhan
2
M.E. İnanç
3
F. Avdatek
1
Ş. Güngör
3
R. Türkmen
4
P.B. Tuncer
5
U. Taşdemir
6

  1. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Afyon Kocatepe University, Ahmet Necdet Sezer Campus, 03200, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
  2. Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Aksaray University, Hacilar Harmanı Street, 12. Boulevard No: 2, 68100, Aksaray, Turkey
  3. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Istiklal Campus, 15030, Burdur, Turkey
  4. Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmet Necdet Sezer Campus, 03200, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
  5. Technical Sciences Vocational School, Mersin University, Çiftlikköy Campus, 33343, Yenişehir, Mersin, Turkey
  6. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Aksaray University, Central Campus, 68100, Aksaray, Turkey
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Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the reproductive performance of primiparous and nulliparous Saanen goats following the insemination made cervically via frozen commercial buck semen with short-time controlled internal drug release (CIDR, Eazi-Breed, Pfizer)-based synchronization. In the study, a total of 50 Saanen goats, 26 of which were aged 9 months and 24 of which were aged 2 years, were used. The CIDRs including 0.33 g of progesterone were applied to all the goats for 7 days and while the CIDRs were taken out of the vagina, the 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) was injected intramuscularly. The first dose was administered in a fixed-time manner with mini straws of 0.25 ml including 300x106 motile frozen spermatozoa 24 hours after the injection without making estrus detection, and the second dose insemination was applied 24 hours later. In the study, although the pregnancy rate, fecundity, prolificacy and multiple birth rate values (83%, 1.25, 1.50 and 60%) obtained in the primiparous goats were found to be higher than those found in the nulliparous age group (80%, 0.84, 1.05 and 38%), they were not statistically significant. It was concluded that the effects of the CIDR-based double-dose insemination applications in the primiparous and nulliparous Saanen breed goats in breeding season for 7 days on fertility were similar and the cervical insemination method, a quick and more practical option compared to the intrauterine insemination, could be used successfully in both age groups.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Ozis Altincekic
1
M. Koyuncu
1

  1. Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, 16059, Bursa, Turkey
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Abstract

The process of vitrification of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COCs) often results in cold shock. When warming, heat shock occurs which can disrupt the balance of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) intensity. Drastic changes in temperature cause Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), affecting changes on Ca2+ in COCs. The role of calcium is needed for oocyte activation in the fertilization process. The purpose of this study was to measure the expression of Ca2+ and the intensity of Ca2+ in COCs after vitrification. The study was divided into 2 groups, the control group (C) of fresh COCs, and the treatment group (T) of COCs after vitrification. After vitrification for 24 hours, then thawing, the expression of Ca2+ was examined using the Immunocytochemistry (ICC) method and the intensity of calcium (Ca2+) with a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). The research data obtained were analyzed statistically by T-Test. The results showed that the expression of Ca2+ in the control group (12.00±0.00) was different from the treatment group (0.35±0.79). The intensity of Ca2+ in the control group (1059.43±489.59) was different from the treatment group (568.21±84.31). The conclusion of this study is that cryopreservation affects calcium in COCs; there were differences in the expression and the intensity of Ca2+ between fresh COCs and COCs after vitrification. Ca2+ intensity of COCs after vitrification was concentrated in the nucleus, while in fresh COCs it was concentrated in the cytoplasm.
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Authors and Affiliations

W. Widjiati
1
Z. Faizah
2
N. Darsini
2
V.F. Hendrawan
3
H.N. Karima
4
C. Chotimah
4
S.B. Sumitro
5
L.R. Yustinasari
6
A.A.M.N. Kasman
7
J.M. Ntoruru
8
E.M. Luqman
6

  1. Post Graduate School of Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Indonesia
  2. Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Indonesia
  3. Department of Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Indonesia
  4. Bio-Science Central Laboratory, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Indonesia
  5. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Indonesia
  6. Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Indonesia
  7. Faculty of Health Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia
  8. Research Assistant, Meru University, Kenya
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Abstract

A proof of concept for using paper test as a suitable method in the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is reported. The paper test which detects antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) using colloidal gold-labelled capsid protein as the antigen probe was applied exclusively in the screening of anti-PCV2 MAbs. It allowed the detection of 118 single cell clones within 30 min using naked eyes. MAbs with specific binding to authentic epitopes on the virus were selected using a blocking strategy in which the antibody was pre-incubated with PCV2 viral sample before applying to the test paper. Five hybridomas secreting MAbs against the capsid protein were obtained, with only three of them capable of binding to PCV2. The results were validated and confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay. The paper test is simple, rapid, and independent on professional technicians and proves to be an excellent approach for the screening of MAbs against specific targets.
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Authors and Affiliations

Q.Y. Jin
1
L.L. Feng
2
Y.B. Wang
3
P. Li
4
J.F. Yang
1
M. Teng
1
S.J. Chai
1
G.X. Xing
1
G.P. Zhang
1

  1. Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, PR China
  2. Institute of Agricultural Economics and Information, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, PR China
  3. School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, PR China
  4. School of Life Sciences and Basic Medicine, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang 453003, PR China
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Abstract

Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP) is a very serious respiratory disease which is difficult to prevent and treat. In this study, the therapeutic effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on PCP were examined using a mouse model. A mouse model of PCP was established by intranasal infections with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Histopathological analysis was performed by routine paraffin sections and an H-E staining method. The inflammatory factors, TLR4 and CCL2 were analyzed by qPCR. The expression levels of p-p65 and pGSK-3ß were detected using the Western Blot Method. The death rates, clinical symptoms, lung injuries, and levels of TLR-4, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and CCL2 were observed to decrease in the App-infected mice treated with LiCl. It was determined that the LiCl treatments had significantly reduced the mortality of the App-infected cells, as well as the expressions of p-p65 and pGSK-3ß. The results of this study indicated that LiCl could improve the pulmonary injuries of mice caused by App via the inhibition of the GSK-3β-NF-κB-dependent pathways, and may potentially become an effective drug for improving pulmonary injuries caused by PCP.
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Authors and Affiliations

Y. Zhang
1
W. Xu
1
Y. Tang
1
F. Huang
1 2

  1. College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Furong District, Nongda Road, No.1, Changsha 410128, China
  2. Hunan Engineering Technology Research Center for Veterinary Drugs, Hunan Agricultural University, Furong District, Nongda Road, No.1, Changsha 410128, China
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Abstract

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an important disease that causes severe economic loses in the poultry industry worldwide. Furthermore, the spread of new variants poses a challenge for diagnosis and control of the disease. This study investigated the situation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), specifically the Israel variant-2 (IS var-2) also known as GI-23 genotype, in Turkey. Between 2014 and 2019, 214 flocks vaccinated against H120 from Marmara, Western Black Sea, and Inner Anatolia were examined, with 127 (59.3%) flocks testing positive for IBV, of which 92 (72.4%) were positive for IS var-2. Of the latter samples, 60 were randomly selected and subjected to full S1 gene sequencing. The analysis indicated that the field strain in Turkey was located on the same branch as the GI-23 genotype, which is one of the most frequently observed wild-type cluster found in the Middle East. The DNA similarities between the GI-23 isolates from 2014 to 2019 were 99%. In conclusion, the IS var-2 genotype has been circulating in broiler flocks in Turkey. It is recommended that establishing the vaccine strategy it should be considered the current circulating strains for the prevention and control of the disease among poultry.
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Authors and Affiliations

İ.B. Müştak
1
H.K. Müştak
1
N. Bilgen
2

  1. Ankara University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Microbiology, İrfan Baştuğ street, Dışkapı, Ankara, Turkey
  2. Ankara University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Genetics, İrfan Baştuğ street, Dışkapı, Ankara, Turkey
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Abstract

Mastitis is one of the most crucial diseases of dairy animals. Especially subclinical mastitis (SCM) has negative impacts on of dairy economy in term of reducing milk quality and quantity also premature culling and cost of therapy. Staphylococci are important etiological agents in SCM. The aim of the study was to investigate the biofilm production and antibiotic resistance profiles of Staphylococcus spp. other than S. aureus isolated from milks of Anatolian water buffalo with subclinical mastitis. Twenty-two coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) identified phenotypically were also identified with PCR as Staphylococcus spp. other than S. aureus. Biofilm productions were investigated both by Congo Red Agar Method and PCR. The antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were determined by Disc Diffusion Method and they were antibiotyped. Only three (13.6%) isolates were biofilm positive both phenotypically and genotypically. All isolates except for two were resistant against at least two antibiotics. Multidrug-resistance among the isolates was low (13.6%). Antibiotyping results showed that the similarities among the strains were between 30-100%. Genotyping of the strains revealed that a genetic heterogeneity was found among CNS isolates and their similarities were between 43% and 93%. In conclusion, CNS isolates identified as subclinical mastitis agents in buffaloes showed a high antibiotic resistance profile especially against oxacillin and vancomycin. Further studies should be conducted to investigate new mechanisms and/or genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in buffaloes.
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Authors and Affiliations

H. Gurler
1
A. Findik
2
M.G. Sezener
2

  1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ondokuz Mayis, Samsun, Turkey
  2. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ondokuz Mayis, Samsun, Turkey
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Abstract

Information regarding the correct pedigree of and relationship between animals is useful for managing dairy breeding, reducing inbreeding, estimating breeding value, and establishing correct breeding programs. Additionally, the successful implementation of progeny testing is crucial for improving the genetics of dairy cattle, which depends on the availability of correct pedigree information. Incorrect pedigree information leads to bias in bull evaluation. In this study, Neogen GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP) 50K SNP chips were used to identify and verify the sire of Taiwanese Holstein dairy cattle and analyze the reasons that lead to incorrect sire records. Samples were collected from 2,059 cows of 36 dairy farms, and the pedigree information was provided by breeders. The results of sire verification can be divided into three categories: submitted unconfirmed sire, submitted confirmed sire, and incorrectly submitted verified sire. Data on the sires of 1,323 (64.25%) and 572 (27.78%) dairy cows were verified and discovered, respectively. Sires of 1,895 (92.03%) dairy cattle were identified, which showed that the paternal pedigree of dairy cattle could be discovered and verified through genetic testing. An error-like analysis revealed that the data of 37 sires were incorrectly recorded because the bull’s NAAB code number was incorrectly entered into the insemination records: for 19 sires, the wrong bull was recorded because the frozen semen of a bull placed in the wrong storage tank was used, 6 had no sire records, and for 12 sires, the NAAB code of the correct bull was recorded but with a wrong stud code, marketing code, or unique number for the stud or breed. To reduce recorded sire error rates by at least 27.78%, automated identification of the mated bull must be adopted to reduce human error and improve dairy breeding management on dairy farms.
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Authors and Affiliations

C.H. Chao
1
Y.H. Yeh
1
Y.M. Chen
1
K.H. Lee
1
S.H. Wang
1
T.Y. Lin
1

  1. Hsinchu Branch, Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, 207-5, Bi-tou-mian, Wu-hoo village, Si-hoo Township, Miaoli County, Taiwan
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Abstract

Cutaneous adverse food reaction (CAFR) is a common disease, affecting about 1-2% of dogs and cats. Diagnosis of the CAFR is made through elimination diet coupled with diet challenge, as methods like skin tests, patch tests, basophil degranulation tests and assessment of IgG and IgE serum levels are not sensitive enough. A partially hydrolysed salmon and pea hypoallergenic diet was evaluated in the diagnosis and treatment of CAFR in dogs and cats.
The diet was used in the treatment of 13 dogs and 12 cats for 10 weeks. The Pruritus Visual Analog Scale (PVAS; dogs and cats), Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-04; dogs) and the Scoring Feline Allergic Dermatitis (SCORFAD; cats) were used for effectiveness evaluation.
In dogs, a significant decrease was reported in both CADESI-04 (from 17.3±7.5 to 10.15±7.4; p=0.028) and PVAS (from 7±1.3 to 4.76±1.8; p=0.003) after four weeks of treatment. Also in cats, both the PVAS (from 6.75±1.8 to 4±2.3; p=0.006) and SCORFAD (from 4.16±1.9 to 2.58±1.2; p=0.029) decreased significantly after four weeks. After eight weeks, a significant improvement was observed in almost all the animals. Evaluated diet was useful in the treatment of the CAFR in dogs and cats.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.P. Szczepanik
1
M. Gołyński
2
P. Wilkołek
1
G. Kalisz
3

  1. Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Veterinary Dermatology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, ul. Gleboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
  2. Department of Diagnostics and Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Medicine Institute, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun, Poland
  3. Independent Unit of Spectroscopy and Chemical Imaging, Faculty of Biomedicine, Medical University of Lublin, ul. W. Chodzki 4a, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
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Abstract

Erythritol helps both prevent and improve periodontal disease and is therefore widely used for dental care in humans. However, only a few studies have investigated the effects of erythritol on periodontal disease in animals. We hypothesized that erythritol could be used to prevent and improve periodontal disease also in canines and investigated the effects of erythritol on canine periodontal disease–related pathogenic bacteria using both in vitro and in vivo methods.
The effect of erythritol on the proliferation of Porphyromonas gulae, which is reportedly associated with canine periodontal disease, was investigated in vitro. In addition, a 4-week intervention trial using an external gel preparation containing 5% erythritol was performed in canines with mild periodontal disease; changes in the microbiota around periodontal lesions were investigated using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.
The growth of P. gulae was significantly suppressed by erythritol in vitro. In the intervention study, the Shannon index, an indicator of the species distribution α-diversity, and the occupancy of several canine periodontal disease – related bacteria ( P. gulae, P. cangingivalis) were significantly decreased in periodontal lesions.
Based on the results of in vitro and in vivo studies, we conclude that, as in humans, erythritol has bacteriostatic effects against periodontal disease – related bacteria in canines.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Tochio
1 2
R. Makida
1
T. Fujii
1
Y. Kadota
1
M. Takahashi
1
A. Watanabe
2
K. Funasaka
2
Y. Hirooka
2
A. Yasukawa
3
K. Kawano
2 4

  1. B Food Science Co., Ltd., 24-12, Kitahama-machi, Chita, Aichi 478-0046, Japan
  2. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan
  3. Kamishakujii Veterinary Medical Hospital, 1-4-13, Sekimachi-Higashi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177-0052, Japan
  4. Tokyo Animal Allergy Center, 4-23-15, Kurihara, Adachi-ku, Tokyo 123-0842, Japan
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of training on body surface temperature over the joints in racehorses, measured by infrared thermography. The study involved monitoring of 14 Thoroughbred racehorses in 6 imaging sessions over a period of 3 months. Temperature measurements of the forelimb and hindlimb joints were made before and just after training. Joint temperature of limbs increased significantly after training. Environmental temperature had a statistically significant influence on surface temperature over the joints. The lowest surface temperatures were recorded over the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint and the highest temperatures in the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joint. The metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints warmed the least during training, but were influenced the most by differences in environmental temperature. The surface temperature difference before and after training is an important indicator of the thermoregulatory response to exercise in racing horses. Understanding surface temperature changes in response to regular training is necessary for future studies on diagnosing injuries of joints.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Soroko
1
W. Górniak
2
M. Godlewska
1
K. Howell
3

  1. Institute of Animal Breeding, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 38C, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
  2. Department of Automotive Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Na Grobli 13, 50-421 Wroclaw, Poland
  3. Microvascular Diagnostics, Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK
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Abstract

In the present study, we used next-generation sequencing to investigate the impacts of two commercially available prescription diet regimens on the fecal microbiomes of eleven client-owned healthy pet dogs. We tested an anallergenic diet on 6 dogs and a low-fat diet on 5 dogs. Before starting the study, each dog was fed a different commercial diet over 5 weeks. After collecting pre-diet fecal samples, the anallergenic or low-fat diet was administered for 5 weeks. We then collected fecal samples and compared the pre- and post-diet fecal microbiomes. In the dogs on the anallergenic diet, we found significantly decreased proportions of Bacteroides, Ruminococcaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Fusobacteria, respectively. The proportion of the genus Streptococcus belonging to the phylum Firmicutes was significantly increased upon administering the anallergenic diet. In the dogs on the low-fat diet, although the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes tended to increase (p=0.116) and decrease (p=0.147) relative to the pre-diet levels, respectively, there were no significant differences in the proportions of any phylum between the pre- and post-diet fecal microbiomes. The anallergenic diet induced a significantly lower diversity index value than that found in the pre-diet period. Principal coordinate analysis based on unweighted UniFrac distance matrices revealed separation between the pre- and post-diet microbiomes in the dogs on the anallergenic diet. These results suggest that, even in pet dogs kept indoors in different living environments, unification of the diet induces apparent changes in the fecal microbiome.
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Authors and Affiliations

E. Onozawa
1
A. Goto
1
H. Oda
1
S. Seki
1
T. Sako
1
A. Mori
1

  1. School of Veterinary Nursing and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyonan, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan
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Abstract

This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of inulin used as prebiotic on the kidney in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia model.
Wistar Albino rats were divided into four groups: Control group, LPS (endotoxemia) group, Inulin + LPS group in which LPS (1.5 mg/kg, E. coli, Serotype 0111: B4) was treated after inulin (500 mg/kg) given by gavage for 21 days and Inulin group. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last LPS injection. Kidney samples were taken for biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) values were determined. In addition, kidney sections were stained for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukine-6 (IL-6) expression, and leukocyte infiltration.
LPS caused oxidative stress and inflammation. Inulin administration could prevent oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, inulin decreased iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 expression. However, it did not change the distribution of leukocytes in kidney tissues.
These results suggest to promising benefits of inulin as prebiotic in reducing the effects of endotoxemia. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the capacity of prebiotics in endotoxemia.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kandil
1

  1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, 31134, Istanbul, Turkey
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Abstract

A novel avian orthoreovirus (N-ARV) variant characterized with obvious arthritis and synovial inflammation, was isolated from Shandong, China in May 2016. It caused chicken poor growth and enormous economic losses to the poultry industry of China. However, there are few effective methods for detecting the antibody levels of N-ARV. In this study, a viral structural protein σC was expressed using the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a (+). The target protein was obtained by inducing for 6 hours at an IPTG concentration of 0.6mM. The optimal dilution of the coating antigen and serum antibody were determined to be 1000 fold and 10 fold respectively. A specificity test showed that there was no positive reactivity between N-ARV and other pathogens, and when the positive serum was diluted 100 times detection results were still checkable. The repeatability of this method was determined by the inter assay and intra assay tests with variability ranging from 4.85% to 7.93%. In conclusion, this indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) will be useful for large-scale serological surveys and monitoring antibody levels in N-ARV infection.
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Authors and Affiliations

H. Liu
1 2 3
Z. Wei
1 2 3
J. Yang
1 2 3
Y. Wang
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID
J. Hu
1 2 3
Y. Tang
1 2 3
Y. Diao
1 2 3

  1. College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, No.61 Daizong Street, Tai’an 271018, China
  2. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Agricultural University, No.61 Daizong Street, Tai’an 271018, China
  3. Shandong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Agricultural University, No.61 Daizong Street, Tai’an 271018, China
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Abstract

The adaptation response of myocardium angiogenesis stimulated by specific exercise intensities remains unclear. The aims of this study is to explore the effect of different intensities aerobic exercise to cardiac angiogenesis regulation via HIF-1α, PGC-1α, VEGF, and CD34+ in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were divided into control and exercise groups. Exercise groups were trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks, 30 min/day for 5 days with low, moderate, and high-intensity groups. The rats were sacrificed, and the myocardium was collected and preserved at -80°C until used. Cardiac protein samples were extracted and run for Western blotting using the specific antibodies: hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34+). Results showed that protein expression of HIF-1α, PGC-1α, VEGF, and CD34+ was increased significantly by different intensities in the exercise group compared to the control. A correlation statistics test showed that there was a strong correlation effect of HIF-1α on VEGF protein expression in low (p=0.047) and high intensity exercise groups (p=0.009), but no effect was found in the moderate groups. In addition, there was a significant strong effect of PGC-1α on VEGF protein expression in the moderate groups (p=0.037), but no effect was found in other groups. In conclusion, different exercise intensities induce a different modulation pattern of proteins which might be responsible for cardiac adaptation, especially angiogenesis.
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Authors and Affiliations

N. Sylviana
1 2
H. Goenawan
1 2
Y. Susanti
1 2
R. Lesmana
1 2
I. Megantara
1 2
Setiawan
1

  1. Physiology Division, Biomedical Sciences Department Faculty Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
  2. Physiology Molecular Laboratory, Biological Activity Division, Central Laboratories, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
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Abstract

This study was intended to determine the effect of adding flax seeds to a concentrate for lamb fattening on the fatty acid composition of the omental fat depot in Pramenka lambs reared indoors. A total of 63 lambs (10±3 kg of live body weight, 30±7 days of age, 30 males and 33 females) were used. They were divided into two groups: a control (CON) fed on hay, ewe’s milk, and a 300-g daily ration of a commercial concentrate, and an experimental group (FS) fed on hay, ewe’s milk and 300 g/day of the concentrate enriched with 5% of flax seeds. After a 60-day fattening period for each group, 10 lambs (5 males and 5 females) were selected and omental fat samples were analysed for fatty acid composition. Highly significant differences (p<0.001) were found between CON and FS in α-linolenic acid, the sum of n-3 fatty acids, and the ratio n-6/n-3 fatty acids. The effect of sex on the fatty acid content in the fat depot was only significant for C20:0 fatty acid (p<0.05).
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Authors and Affiliations

E. Mujić
1
J. Mateo
2
H. Omanović
3
D. Nedić
4
H. Vilić
1
M. Červek
5

  1. University of Bihac, Biotechnical Faculty, Luke Marjanovića bb, 77000, Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  2. Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana s/n 24071 León, Spain
  3. University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Zmaja od Bosne 8, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  4. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bulevar Oslobodjenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  5. Emona Razvojni Center za Prehrano (RCP) Kavčičeva ulica 72, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Abstract

Buffalopox (BPX) is a highly contagious disease that causes high morbidity and production losses in buffaloes. During this study, seroprevalence, effect of various associated risk factors, and pathological studies of BPX were recorded in the Punjab province. A total of 97 blood samples and 63 scabs were collected from clinically pox suspected buffaloes. Serum was harvested to perform single radial hemolysis to assess the seroprevalence, and scabs were subjected to PCR for BPX virus confirmation. Results revealed that, animal demographics and environmental associated factors showed significant effect (p<0.05,1<R2>0) on BPX occurrence. The overall BPX seroprevalence was recorded 4.18% in the Punjab province. The BPX was recorded 5.48% in Nili Ravi breed during winter (7.42%), aged 5-7 years (7.46%) under loose housing (5.51%) in the Faisalabad region (8.03%). Further, BPX was 5.37% in pregnant, 6.86% pregnant milking buffaloes during the 3rd lactation period (7.28%) in dairy herds (5.20%). The BPX was 5.22% in non-vaccinated buffaloes where multiple animals were reared together (4.99%) in the herds having 21-30 total number of animals. A total of 49 scab samples were found positive for the BPX virus via PCR with C18L gene amplification. Grossly, inflammatory lesions with pits in the center and wart-like nodules were seen on teats and udder of buffaloes. Increased leukocytes, especially neutrophils and lymphocytes, were seen in the blood of the infected animals. These results provide a broader window to understand the effect of associated risk factors, strengthen the diagnostic aid, and to contain the current spread of BPX in Pakistan to safeguard large ruminant-based livelihood.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.W. Usmani
1
F. Rizvi
1
A. Khatoon
1
M.S. Mahmood
2

  1. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 38000
  2. Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 38000
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Abstract

Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), an oocyte-derived member of the TGF-β superfamily, plays an essential role in regulation of follicular development. This study aimed to determine the cyclic changes in serum GDF-9 concentration, compare its levels before and after ovariohysterectomy (OHE), and investigate its potential as a tool in ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) diagnosis in cats. GDF-9 measurements were performed on 50 cats referred for routine OHE. The stage of the estrous cycle was determined by vaginal cytology and measurement of serum estradiol and progesterone levels was carried out to detect the cyclic changes in circulating GDF-9. One week after OHE, serum samples were collected again from 30 cats to reveal differences in GDF-9 levels. GDF-9 levels in the follicular phase were significantly higher than those in the interestrus (p<0.05). The postoperative analysis could be performed. GDF-9 levels slightly decreased one week after OHE (p=0.053). In conclusion, blood GDF-9 levels change during the estrous cycle, and may decrease with age in cats. However, further studies are needed to reveal the efficiency of GDF-9 in ORS diagnosis.
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Authors and Affiliations

G. Evkuran Dal
1
A. Baykal
1
T.S.F. Toydemir Karabulut
1
N. Dokuzeylul Gungor
2
O. Turna
1

  1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, 34320, Istanbul, Avcilar, Turkey
  2. Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and IVF, Medical Park Goztepe Hospital, Bahcesehir University, 34732, Istanbul, Kadikoy, Turkey
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of parenteral and oral supplementation of Selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VTE) on selected antioxidant parameters in blood and colostrum as well as their effect on the incidence of mastitis in dairy cows during the final phase of gravidity (6 weeks) and first two weeks after calving. For the practical part of the study 36 dairy cows of Slovak pied breed in the second to fourth lactation-gestation cycle were selected. The animals weredivided into three groups: the control (C) and two experimental groups (D1 and D2). The selected groups were treated as follows: in group D1 products containing Se (Selevit inj.) and vitamin E (Erevit sol. inj.) were administered intramuscularly twice, six and three weeks prior to parturition; in group D2 a vitamin-minerals supplement in the form of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and dl-α-tocopherol acetate were supplemented orally for six weeks calving. The blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis in dairy cows approximately 42 days before calving (control sampling), on parturition day, and the 14th day after calving. Higher concentrations of Se and VTE were found in the blood plasma samples of both experimental groups collected on the day of parturition. In addition, the orally supplemented group (D2) showed higher Se and α-tocopherol concentrations in blood plasma on the14th day after calving as well a reduction of occurrence of mastitis by about 25 % compared to the control group. The relationship between inflammatory response and oxidative stress was also confirmed. The concentrations of milk malondialdehyde indicating lipid peroxidation during mastitis were significantly higher in milk samples from infected cows than in milk samples from healthy animals in each monitored group. In order to prevent oxidative stress and moderate inflammatory response in dairy cows it is very important to optimally balance their nutritive needs with an appropriate ratio of Se and VTE supplements. Therefore we still recommend supplementation of the cows’ postpartum dietwith 0.5 mg of Se/kg dry matter (DM) and 102 mg of dl-α-tocopherol acetate/kg DM to stabilize their optimal blood levels, stimulate the activity of glutathione peroxidase and reduce the incidence of mastitis.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Vasiľ
1
F. Zigo
1
Z. Farkašová
1
E. Pecka-Kielb
2
J. Bujok
2
J. Illek
3

  1. Department of Nutrition and Animal Husbandry, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenského 73, Košice, 04001, Slovakia
  2. Department of Biostructure and Animal Physiology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 31, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland
  3. Large Animal Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého tř. 1946/1, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
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Abstract

The proper functioning of the perinatal sucking reflex in calves is essential for the prevention of milk leakage into the rumen. The complex process behind its regulation is mediated at the gut level via multiple excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, of which acetylcholine and nitric oxide are of fundamental importance. The aim of our study was to depict age-related alterations in the cholinergic and nitrergic innervation of the esophageal groove (EG) using immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR methods. We found out that the highest number of cholinergic nerve cells was present in the second trimester fetuses. From this developmental stage onward, their amount was gradually decreasing and reached the lowest value in 4-year-old cows. The same developmental pattern was observed for nitrergic nerve structures with the highest percentage of nitrergic neurons in the third trimester fetuses. Our observations prove that both neuronal populations are crucial for a proper closure of EG in calves. Therefore, their contribution to a general neuronal activity in the ENS diminishes with age as the high motility of a gastric groove is not necessarily required in older cattle.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Marszałek
1
T. Serzysko
1
W. Sienkiewicz
1

  1. Department of Animal Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

The effects of feeding, fasting, and re-feeding on the ruminal profile of growing cattle were studied. Ruminal fluid and urine samples were obtained from 12 crossbred steers weighing approximately 300 kg during the following periods: 11 h of normal feeding (postprandial period), 48 consecutive hours of fasting, and followed by 48 h of re-feeding. Fasting promotes changes in the ruminal profile, such as an increase in ruminal pH, reduction in the number of rumen protozoa and bacteria, and decrease in the urinary excretion of allantoin; however, it does not change the urinary uric acid excretion rate. The overall mean ruminal pH was higher during fasting (7.53±0.27) in comparison to those at normal feeding (6.72±0.25) and re-feeding (6.62±0.31) (p<0.05). During re-feeding, the ruminal profile returned to normal, except for the protozoa count, which despite a slight increase only after 48 h of re-feeding, did not recover to baseline values.
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Authors and Affiliations

E.L. Ortolani
1
C.A. Maruta
1
R.A. Barrêto Júnior
2
C.S. Mori
1
A.C. Antonelli
3
M.C.A. Sucupira
1
A.H.H. Minervino
4

  1. Department of Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo-SP, 05508-270, Brazil
  2. Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Semiarid, 59625-900, Mossoró-RN, Brazil
  3. School of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Sao Francisco Valley, 56304-205, Petrolina-PE, Brazil
  4. Laboratory of Animal Health, LARSANA, Federal University of Western Pará, UFOPA, 68040-255 Santarém-PA, Brazil
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Abstract

Twenty apparently healthy buffaloes were withdrawn of feed and water for 48 hours. Buffaloes were administered with fluids and were subjected to endoscopy every 12 hours. Olympus™ [GIF V70] flexible video endoscope was passed through the ventral nasal meatus, the pharynx, oesophagus and then into the reticulo-rumen in physically restrained buffaloes. The entire reticulum and part of the rumen could be visualized, when the animals were off feed and water for at least 48 hours and evacuations of rumen contents were done even after 48 hours of starvation to visualize the rumen in six buffaloes. The reticulum appeared light brown to pink coloured with honeycomb shape and the rumen appeared smooth, shiny pink, with numerous papillae throughout its surface. The procedure was well tolerated by all the buffaloes and satisfactory reticular and ruminal images could be obtained including biopsy.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Sasikala
1
G. Vijayakumar
2
S. Sivaraman
3
G.A. Balasubramaniam
4

  1. Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tamil Nadu 637 002, India
  2. Veterinary University Peripheral Hospital, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tamil Nadu 637 002, India
  3. Department of Veterinary Clinics, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tamil Nadu 637 002, India
  4. Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tamil Nadu 637 002, India
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the cryoprotective effects of egg yolk from different avian species (hen, goose and quail) on post-thaw quality of dog semen. Total motility (TMOT) and progressive motility (PMOT) of frozen-thawed spermatozoa were not significantly differed among the extenders, but were higher in the quail-egg yolk based extender compared with extender containing hen or goose egg yolk. It was found that post-thaw sperm motion parameters, velocity VCL and ALH, were significantly higher in the quail-egg yolk based extender. No marked differences in post-thaw sperm plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were observed among the extenders. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that goose or quail egg yolk is a suitable alternative to hen egg yolk for the cryopreservation of dog semen.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Strzeżek
1
A. Reksa
1

  1. Department of Animal Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-718 Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland

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