Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2011 | No 2 June |

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Thermodynamic equilibrium-based models of gasification process are relatively simple and widely used to predict producer gas characteristics in performance studies of energy conversion plants. However, if an unconstrained calculation of equilibrium is performed, the estimations of product gas yield and heating value are too optimistic. Therefore, reasonable assumptions have to be made in order to correct the results. This paper proposes a model of the process that can be used in case of deficiency of information and unavailability of experimental data. The model is based on free energy minimization, material and energy balances of a single zone reactor. The constraint quasi-equilibrium calculations are made using approximated amounts of non-equilibrium products, i.e. solid char, tar, CH4 and C2H4. The yields of these products are attributed to fuel characteristics and estimated using experimental results published in the literature. A genetic algorithm optimization technique is applied to find unknown parameters of the model that lead to the best match between modelled and experimental characteristics of the product gas. Finally, generic correlations are proposed and quality of modelling results is assessed in the aspect of its usefulness for performance studies of power generation plants.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Kalina
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The paper presents an overview of scaling models used for determining hydrodynamic parameters of Circulating Fluidized Bed boilers. The governing equations and the corresponding dimensionless numbers are derived and presented for three different approaches to the scaling law of fluidized beds: classical dimensional analysis, differential equations and integrated solutions and experimental correlations. Some results obtained with these equations are presented. Finally, the capabilities and limitations of scaling experiments are discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Mirek
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This is an extended research of the paper (Islam et al., 2011) conducted to obtain a universal set of interaction parameters of the model NRTL over the temperature range 10 - 100 °C for hexane-butanol-water system; meaning for binary pairs hexane-butanol, butanol-water and hexane-water; and for ternary system hexane-butanol-water. Thorough investigations of data selections for all binary pairs (Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE), Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE)), infinite dilution activity coefficient (γ∞), infinite dilution distribution coefficient (Dsw), excess enthalpy (HE), and for ternary system (LLE of hexane-butanol-water) were carried out. Finally quadratic temperature dependent interaction parameters were estimated regressing all the mentioned data and in each case calculated results were compared with literature values. The comparisons showed an overall percentage of error within 15% for the mentioned phase equilibrium calculations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Akand Islam
Vinayak Kabadi
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The depletion of stocks of fossil fuels and the environment protection requirements increase the significance of hydrogen as a future energy carrier. The present research is focused on the development of new safe methods of production, transport and storage of hydrogen. The paper presents an analysis of problems related to the assessment of the effects of failure of hydrogen transporting pipelines. Scenarios of hazardous events connected with an uncontrollable leakage of hydrogen are discussed. The sizes of heat radiation and pressure wave hazard zones are determined.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Rusin
Katarzyna Stolecka
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Fast development of computation techniques for electrolyte activities contributed recently to introduction of a few substantial programmes for thermodynamic computing of multiphase systems. The presented study comprises useful information for practical computing using selected thermodynamic models of aqueous electrolyte solutions. Those models enable quantitative description of both phase and ionic equilibria and provide values of activity coefficients. The carried out analysis of individual models involved a comparison of their practical effectiveness features along with problems encountered in evaluation of the coefficients. The authors conclude that for the Solvay soda system the exUNIQUAC model for an in-house code or the MSE model for a commercial one can be used.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zdzisław Jaworski
Małgorzata Czernuszewicz
Łukasz Gralla
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In the paper, on the basis of our studies and the available literature data, a model of changes in the number of active centers corresponding to the structure of the reactive coal particle has been developed. A new distribution function that links the specific surface area of a particle with its porosity and reaction degree has been proposed. An equation for estimation of changes in this parameter during the reaction, on the basis of the initial value, has been presented. In the range of our data and the analysis of the literature data, the model, with satisfactory accuracy, describes internal structural changes of coal and coal char particles. The present results may constitute a basis for complex modelling of coal conversion processes.

Based on the results it was found that the total active centres are related to the internal surface area and porosity of the particle. For a specific coal type, this value depends on the porosity, true density and size of the particle. Changes in total active centres, when these structural properties during thermal conversion of coal are considered, are described in equations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Gil
Piotr Mocek
Wojciech Bialik

Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via e-mail address When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles. 

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
  • the manuscript mirror in PDF format,
  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
          3. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in concise style in a separate chapter. Presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable.
          4. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript text according. Their graphical form should be of vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, separate files containing each of the drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded onto the journal Web site in one of the following formats: bmp, gif, tiff, jpg, eps. Due to rigid editorial reasons, graphical elements created within MS Word and Excel are not acceptable. The final length of figures should be intended typically for 8 cm (single column) or 16 cm in special cases of rich-detail figures. The basic font size of letters in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final length.  

          Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs should be in gray scale. In case of coloured graphs or photo an additional payment of 300 PLN (72 €) per 1 page containing coloured figures on both sides, or 150 PLN (36 €) per page containing coloured figures on one side will be required.

          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

        5. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate title and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.

        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations


The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at

Examples of citation for:

Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

Suggested Reviewers

Authors are kindly requested to include a list of 3 potential reviewers for their manuscript, with complete contact information. These reviewers must not be from the authors' institutions, or have co-authored with authors of the manuscript.


Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Executive Editor: dr hab. inż. Paweł Sobieszuk, email address:

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