Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering

Content

Chemical and Process Engineering | 2015 | No 4 December |

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Abstract

The article discusses an innovative system used for aerobic biostabilisation and biological drying of solid municipal waste. A mechanical–biological process (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment were carried out and monitored in 5 bioreactors. A two-stage biological treatment process has been used in the investigation. In the first step an undersize fraction was subjected to the biological stabilisation for a period of 14 days as a result of which there was a decrease of loss on ignition, but not sufficient to fulfill the requirements of MBT technology. In the second stage of a biological treatment has been applied 7-days intensive bio-drying of MSW using sustained high temperatures in bioreactor. The article presents the results of the chemical composition analysis of the undersize fraction and waste after biological drying, and also the results of temperature changes, pH ratio, loss on ignition, moisture content, combustible and volatile matter content, heat of combustion and calorific value of wastes. The mass balance of the MBT of MSW with using the innovative aeration system showed that only 14.5% of waste need to be landfilled, 61.5% could be used for thermal treatment, and nearly 19% being lost in the process as CO2 and H2O.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Dziedzic
Bogusława Łapczyńska-Kordon
Mateusz Malinowski
Marcin Niemiec
Jakub Sikora
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine the efficiency of the thermal wave type adsorption refrigerating equipment working on a pair of activated carbon and methanol. Adsorption units can work in trigeneration systems and in applications driven by waste heat. They can be built also as a part of hybrid sorption-compressor systems, and they are very popular in solar refrigeration systems and energy storage units. The device examined in this study operates in a special mode called thermal wave. This mode allows to achieve higher efficiency rates than the normal mode of operation, as a significant contributor to transport heat from one to the other adsorber. To carry out the experiment a test bench was built, consisting of two cylindrical adsorbers filled with activated carbon, condenser, evaporator, oil heater and two oil coolers. Thermal oil circulation was responsible for providing and receiving heat from adsorbers. In order to perform the correct action a special control algorithm device was developed and implemented to keep the temperature in the evaporator at a preset level. The experimental results show the operating parameters changes in both adsorbers. Obtained COP (coefficient of performance) for the cycle was 0.13.
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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Rusowicz
Andrzej Grzebielec
Rafał Laskowski
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Abstract

Boiler combustion air is generally controlled by the excess air content measured at the boiler economiser outlet using oxygen (O2) analysers. Due to duct geometry and dimensions, areas of high and low O2 concentrations in the flue gas duct occur, which poses a problem in obtaining a representative measurement of O2 in the flue gas stream. Multipoint systems as opposed to single point systems are more favourable to achieve representative readings. However, ash blockages and air leakages influence the accuracy of O2 measurement. The design of multipoint system varies across ESKOMs’ Power Stations. This research was aimed at evaluating the accuracy of the multipoint oxygen measurement system installed at Power Station A and to determine the systematic errors associated with different multipoint systems designs installed at Power Stations' A and B. Using flow simulation software, FloEFDTM and Flownex®, studies were conducted on two types of multipoint system designs This study established that significantly large errors, as high as 50%, were noted between the actual and measured flue gas O2. The design of the multipoint system extraction pipes also introduces significant errors, as high as 23%, in the O2 measured. The results indicated that the sampling errors introduced with Power Station A’s system can be significantly reduced by adopting the sampling pipe design installed at Power Station B.
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Authors and Affiliations

Charlene Ramsunkar
Chris Van Tonder
Walter Schmitz
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Abstract

Effects of infrared power output and sample mass on drying behaviour, colour parameters, ascorbic acid degradation, rehydration characteristics and some sensory scores of spinach leaves were investigated. Within both of the range of the infrared power outputs, 300–500 W, and sample amounts, 15–60 g, moisture content of the leaves was reduced from 6.0 to 0.1±(0.01) kg water/kg dry base value. It was recorded that drying times of the spinach leaves varied between 3.5–10 min for constant sample amount, and 4–16.5 min for constant power output. Experimental drying data obtained were successfully investigated by using artificial neural network methodology. Some changes were recorded in the quality parameters of the dried leaves, and acceptable sensory scores for the dried leaves were observed in all of the experimental conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ayse Sarimeseli
Mehmet Yuceer
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Abstract

The article presents an experimental-theoretical analysis of fluidised-bed drying of poppy seeds directed on minimisation of energy. The analysis was performed for a complete drying node incorporating a heat exchanger and a fan. Two complementary factors were used in the exergetic evaluation: exergy efficiency and unit consumption of exergy. An analysis of drying in stationary bed was carried out for comparison purposes. Results of the exergetic analysis can become a basis for innovative works focused on decreasing energy consumption of a technological node being analysed, e.g. by the use of recirculation of fluidising-drying medium.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Skoneczna-Łuczków
Włodzimierz Ciesielczyk
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Abstract

Flowability of fine, highly cohesive calcium carbonate powder was improved using high energy mixing (dry coating) method consisting in coating of CaCO3 particles with a small amount of Aerosil nanoparticles in a planetary ball mill. As measures of flowability the angle of repose and compressibility index were used. As process variables the mixing speed, mixing time, and the amount of Aerosil and amount of isopropanol were chosen. To obtain optimal values of the process variables, a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was applied. To match the RSM requirements it was necessary to perform a total of 31 experimental tests needed to complete mathematical model equations. The equations that are second-order response functions representing the angle of repose and compressibility index were expressed as functions of all the process variables. Predicted values of the responses were found to be in a good agreement with experimental values. The models were presented as 3-D response surface plots from which the optimal values of the process variables could be correctly assigned. The proposed, mechanochemical method of powder treatment coupled with response surface methodology is a new, effective approach to flowability of cohesive powder improvement and powder processing optimisation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Karolina Leś
Karol Kowalski
Ireneusz Opaliński

Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via e-mail address office.cpe@pw.edu.pl. When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles. 

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
  • the manuscript mirror in PDF format,
  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
          3. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in concise style in a separate chapter. Presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable.
          4. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript text according. Their graphical form should be of vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, separate files containing each of the drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded onto the journal Web site in one of the following formats: bmp, gif, tiff, jpg, eps. Due to rigid editorial reasons, graphical elements created within MS Word and Excel are not acceptable. The final length of figures should be intended typically for 8 cm (single column) or 16 cm in special cases of rich-detail figures. The basic font size of letters in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final length.  

          Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs should be in gray scale. In case of coloured graphs or photo an additional payment of 300 PLN (72 €) per 1 page containing coloured figures on both sides, or 150 PLN (36 €) per page containing coloured figures on one side will be required.

          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

        5. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate title and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.

        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations

 

The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php.

Examples of citation for:

Articles
Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

Conferences
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.


Suggested Reviewers

Authors are kindly requested to include a list of 3 potential reviewers for their manuscript, with complete contact information. These reviewers must not be from the authors' institutions, or have co-authored with authors of the manuscript.

Payments

Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Executive Editor: dr hab. inż. Paweł Sobieszuk, email address: office.cpe@pw.edu.pl


Publication Ethics Policy

ETHICAL PRINCIPLES

Editors of the "Chemical and Process Engineering" pay attention to maintain ethical standards in scientific publications and undertake any possible measure to counteract neglecting the standards. Papers submitted for publication are evaluated with respect to reliability, conforming to ethical standards and the advancement of science. Principles given below are based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, which may be found at:
http://publicationethics.org/files/u2/Best_Practice.pdf

Authors’ duties

Authorship
Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Author should disclose all sources of financing of his/her study, the input of scientific institutions, associations and other subjects and all important conflicts of interests that might affect results and interpretation of the study.

Standards in reporting
Authors of papers based on original studies should present precise description of performed work and objective discussion on its importance. Source data should be accurately presented in the paper. The paper should contain detailed information and references that would enable others to use it. False or intentionally not true declarations are not ethical and are not accepted by the editors.

Access to and storage of data
Authors may be asked for providing raw data used in the paper for editorial assessment and should be prepared to store them within the reasonable time period after publication.

Multiple, unnecessary and competitive publications
As a rule author should not publish papers describing the same studies in more than one journal or primary publication. Submission of the same paper to more than one journal at the same time is not ethical and prohibited.

Confirmation of sources
Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

Important errors in published papers
When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.

Originality and plagiarism
Author may submit only original papers. He/she should be certain that the names of authors referred to in the paper and/or fragments of their texts are properly cited or mentioned.

Ghostwriting
Ghost writing/guest authorship are manifestation of scientific unreliability and all such cases will be revealed including notification of appropriate subjects. Signs of scientific unreliability, especially violation of ethical principles in science will be documented by the Editorial Office.


Duties of the Editorial Office


Editors’ duties
Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.

Decisions on publication
Editor-in Chief is obliged to apply present legal status as to defamation, violation of author’s rights and plagiarism and bears the responsibility for decisions. He/she may consult thematic editors and/or referees in that matter.

Selection of referees
Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).

Confidentiality
Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.

Discrimination
To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.


Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

Objectivity standards
Reviews should be objective. Personal criticism is inappropriate. Referees should clearly ex-press their opinions and support them with proper arguments.

Confidentiality
All reviewed papers should be dealt with as confidential. They should not be discussed or revealed to persons other than the secretary of the Editorial Office.

Anonymity
All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

Confirmation of sources
Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

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