Metal ions can modify plant metabolism and change the level of biologically active components. In the present study, the impact of short-term exposure to strontium on the accumulation of the metal as well as the content of isoflavones in soybean sprouts was investigated.
The seeds were germinated in hydroponics with 0, 1, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mM of Sr for 72 hours. The content of strontium was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the amount of isoflavones was determined with high performance liquid chromatography. Dose-dependent accumulation of Sr and a linear correlation between the Sr concentration in the growth medium and the content of the element in the plant samples were observed. The largest changes in the isoflavone content, compared to the control, were noted in soy sprouts germinated in the presence of 5 and 10 mM of strontium. Daidzin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, and malonylgenistin were the dominant isoflavones and their content increased by approx. 28, 44, 34, and 47%, respectively, compared to the control. Low amounts of aglycones were found; moreover, their content decreased by ca. 19–30%. Our research can be important for obtaining a natural product enhanced with strontium and isoflavones, which contribute to prevention of osteoporosis associated with endogenous oestrogen deficits.
Clarifying the genetic background of the drought-tolerance trait is a crucial task that may help to improve plant performance under stress by a genetic engineering approach. Dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) is a transcription factor family which modulates many stress-responsive genes. In this study, we isolated a DREB homolog gene named ZmDREBtv from Zea mays var. Tevang-1. Using bioinformatic tools, a number of InDels and SNPs in ZmDREBtv sequence different from the reference accession were identified. In addition, based on deduced protein sequence similarity, ZmDREBtv was assigned to transcription factor DREB2 class as featured by a conserved DNA binding domain - AP2. The ZmDREBtv construct under thecontrol of the rd29A promoter was transformed into a drought-sensitive maize plant, K7 line. The transgenic plants were assessed with reference to molecular and phenotypic characteristics related to the drought-tolenrance trait. The results proved that the maize plants carrying ZmDREBtv gene showed enhanced tolerance and better performance to the water-deficit environment at different stages, compared to the wild-type plants.
The aim of our research was to connect the detailed study of fruit anatomy of black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) with identification and detection of the main non-anthocyanin polyphenolic compounds. Our experimental results showed that the highest accumulation of anthocyanin bodies occurred in mature fruits in outer layers during fruit development. The shape of the anthocyanin bodies was most often globular, spherical, hemispherical and intermediate types were present only occasionally. Mature cells of the gynoecium and pericarp generally contain anthocyanin bodies incorporated inside vacuoles. The observed compounds accumulated in cells were rutin, quercetin and catechins, resveratrol; coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic acids, gallic, vanilic, syringic, cinnamic and caffeic acids. These compounds were selected because of their proposed positive effects on health. The analyses of the polyphenolic spectrum showed predominance of ferrulic acid together with gallic acid and catechins with quercetin.The aim of our research was to connect the detailed study of fruit anatomy of black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) with identification and detection of the main non-anthocyanin polyphenolic compounds. Our experimental results showed that the highest accumulation of anthocyanin bodies occurred in mature fruits in outer layers during fruit development. The shape of the anthocyanin bodies was most often globular, spherical, hemispherical and intermediate types were present only occasionally. Mature cells of the gynoecium and pericarp generally contain anthocyanin bodies incorporated inside vacuoles. The observed compounds accumulated in cells were rutin, quercetin and catechins, resveratrol; coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic acids, gallic, vanilic, syringic, cinnamic and caffeic acids. These compounds were selected because of their proposed positive effects on health. The analyses of the polyphenolic spectrum showed predominance of ferrulic acid together with gallic acid and catechins with quercetin.
In this study, we examined whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in seedlings of two winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) varieties (susceptible Tornado and resistant Witon) in response to infestation by the cereal grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.) and bird-cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.). We compared the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation products as well as markers of protein damage (protein-bound thiol and carbonyl groups). The studied parameters were measured at 6, 24, 48 and 96 h post-initial aphid infestation compared to the non-infested control seedlings. Our studies indicated that the cereal aphid feeding evoked oxidative stress in the triticale seedlings. Cereal aphid feeding increased the H2O2 level in triticale tissues, with maximum levels observed at 24 and 48 h post-infestation. Triticale infestation with aphids also increased lipid peroxidation products in triticale seedlings, with the maximal levels at 48 or 96 h post-infestation. Further, there was a reduction in protein thiol content and an increase in protein carbonyl content in the triticale seedlings after infestation with female aphids. Stronger triticale macromolecule damages were evoked by the oligophagous aphid R. padi. There was a more substantial protein thiol content reduction in the resistant Witon cultivar and higher accumulation of protein-bound carbonyls in the tissues of the susceptible Tornado cultivar. The changes were proportional to the aphid population and the time of aphid attack. These findings indicate that the defensive strategies against cereal aphid (S. avenae and R. padi) infestation were stimulated in triticale Tornado and Witon seedlings. Our results explain some aspects and broaden the current knowledge of regulatory mechanisms in plant-aphid interactions.
The free-living Acanthamoeba sp. causes various diseases. Treatment of them is very difficult and not always effective because of encystation, making it highly resistant to antiamoebic drugs. Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, and an yeast Candida albicans also exhibit outstanding resistance to antimicrobial substances. The search for new natural amoebicidal and antimicrobial agents of plant origin is still of current interest. The aim of the study was to investigate the amoebicidal activity of the extracts obtained from tissue culture and a field-grown plant of Chaenomeles japonica against pathogenic trophozoites of Acanthamoeba spp. and antimicrobial effect against S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. The extracts of C. japonica had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Acanthamoeba trophozoites as compared to the non-treated control. Among the crude extracts tested, the extract of leaves, from both shoot culture and the field-grown plant had remarkable amoebicidal action against the trophozoites but also antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The extract from leaves from shoot culture, already on the second and third days of treatment, showed an antiamoebicidal effect at a concentration of 1 mg mL-1 (inhibition of trophozoites 87.5% and 91.8%, respectively). In addition to leaves from shoot culture (a conc. 5 mg mL-1, 2nd day inhibition of trophozoites 85.7% and 3rd day 97.2%), leaves from a field-grown plant (a conc. 5 mg mL-1, 2nd day 91.0% and 3rd day 94.4%) and callus (a conc. 5 mg mL-1, 2nd day 90.0% and 3rd day – 95.4%) also exhibited a good antiamoebicidal activity. Out of the four extracts, the extracts from leaves from both shoot culture and a field-grown plant were reported to be the most active against Gram-positive S. aureus, which was determined by the values of MIC = 5.0 mg mL-1 and MIC = 2.5 mg mL-1, respectively. The inhibitory potential depends on the yield and composition of mainly bioactive compounds: pentacyclic terpenoids (mainly betulinic, ursolic, and oleanolic acids) and polyphenols (mainly chlorogenic acid and its isomers, epicatechin, dimeric, and trimeric proanthocyanidins, quercetin and kaempferol derivatives).
Athyrium christensenianum is considered an apogamous fern species that has originated from a hybrid of diploid sexual A. crenulatoserrulatum and tetraploid sexual A. decurrentialatum. There have been recent reports on tetraploid sexual A. christensenianum. In this study, I attempted to understand the relationships between triploid and tetraploid A. christensenianum. It appeared that tetraploid sexual A. christensenianum is of a hybrid origin between ancestral diploid sexual A. decurrentialatum and A. crenulatoserrulatum. In addition, triploid A. christensenianum did not seem to be of a hybrid origin between diploid sexual A. crenulatoserrulatum and tetraploid sexual A. decurrentialatum, rather of a hybrid origin between tetraploid sexual A. christensenianum and diploid sexual A. crenulatoserrulatum.
Chromosome numbers for 15 taxa of Hieracium s.lat. (including two taxa of Pilosella Vaill.) from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania and Slovakia are given and their metaphase plates are illustrated. Chromosome numbers are published for the first time for H. pannosum subsp. parnassi Nägeli & Peter from Greece (3x and 4x), and for an undescribed species of H. sect. Cernua from North Macedonia (4x). A new, diploid chromosome number was found in H. bracteolatum s.lat. from Greece.
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