Life Sciences and Agriculture

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica


Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2018 | vol. 60 | No 1

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Hordeum murinum L. is a polyploid complex of thermophilic, annual, zoochoric grasses of Mediterranean–Irano- Turanian origin that is commonly present in Europe. H. murinum complex includes three annual and most often autogamous taxa: glaucum, leporinum and murinum. The variation of nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast microsatellites and chloroplast SNP-based PCR-RFLP markers of H. murinum from Europe was analyzed in order to investigate its migration. The chloroplast markers revealed three distinct haplotypes. Two of them are characteristic of leporinum and murinum. A geographical pattern of haplotypes has been detected, however it does not correspond to the known patterns of migration routes in the Holocene. Geographic distribution of genotypes defined by nuclear microsatellites has shown a geographic trend that may link the migration of leporinum and murinum with the spread of Neolithic agriculture in Europe. This study also confirms genetic distinction of glaucum, as well as genetic uniformity of murinum and leporinum.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Bieniek
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Salt stress causes severe reduction in the growth and yield of rice plants. The ability to maintain cellular ion homeostasis is of importance to help the plant survive under salt stress. Salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1), a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, has been proven to play critical roles in Na+ exclusion out of the cell, hence contributing to salt tolerance in plants. In this study, we analyzed the natural nucleotide polymorphisms occuring within the entire coding sequence as well as the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene by comparing the sequences of two contrasting rice genotypes, namely, Nipponbare (salt-sensitive) and Pokkali (salt-resistant). In total, six nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the coding sequence, and 44 nucleotide substitutions, 225-bp-insertion and 65-bp-deletion were observed in the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene. Futher in silico analysis revealed that two out of six nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding sequence were non-synonymous (A1600G, G2204A) which led to two amino acid substitutions (T534A, S735N, respectively) positioned in the C-terminal domain of OsSOS1 transporter, but caused no effect on protein properties. In the upstream region of OsSOS1 gene, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms and two INDELs were identified, in which nucleotide substitutions at position -1392, -1389, -822, -583, +57 and an insertion at position -1035 caused change in cis-regulatory elements. Analysis of OsSOS1 expression revealed that salt induced the expression of the gene in the roots, but not in the leaves in both investigated rice cultivars.
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Authors and Affiliations

Phuc Thi Do
Hoa Quynh Pham
Ha Manh Nguyen
Diep Hong Le
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The major aim of the study was to identify the relationships of photosynthetic pigments with elemental contents of plants exposed to various ambient air conditions. Lolium multiflorum L. plants were exposed at five sites varying in environmental characteristics, including potential air pollution levels. The effect of air pollution by trace elements on plants was examined. Selected trace elements (Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Cr), some macro-elements as well as chlorophyll content were measured after each of four series. The graphical visualization revealed groups of sites with similar response of elements and chlorophyll contents. Sites located outside the city were grouped into one, and two urban sites were grouped into another. The trace element contents were relatively low and, excluding Ni and As, did not reach toxic levels in dry mass of leaves. However, some relations could be noted, which indicates the sensitivity of the photosynthetic process even at low levels of trace elements in ambient air. Chlorophyll b was found to be more sensitive to most of the analyzed trace elements than chlorophyll a. The results revealed chlorophylls, K and Na as indicators of plant stress caused by trace elements present in ambient air, even at relatively low levels.
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Authors and Affiliations

Klaudia Borowiak
Anna Budka
Anetta Hanć
Dariusz Kayze
Marta Lisiak
Janina Zbierska
Danuta Barałkiewicz
Donata Iwaniuk
Natalia Łopatka
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Holoparasitic genera within the family Orobanchaceae are characterized by greatly reduced vegetative organs; therefore, molecular analysis has proved to be a useful tool in solving taxonomic problems in this family. For this purpose, we studied all species of the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche occurring in Central Europe, specifically in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Austria, supplemented by samples mainly from Spain, France, Germany, and Ukraine. They were investigated using nuclear sequences (ITS region) and a plastid trnLtrnF region. The aim of this study was to examine phylogenetic relationships within Orobanche and Phelipanche from Central Europe; we focused on problematic species and aggregates, recent taxonomic changes in these (rank and secondary ranks), and host ranges. The most interesting results concern the exlusion of O. mayeri from O. alsatica aggr. Additionally, following the rules of traditional taxonomy, the correct names and types of some secondary ranks are given and, as a result of this, a new combination below the Phelipanche genus is made (P. sect. Trionychon). The host ranges of the investigated species in Central Europe include 102 species from 12 families, most often from Asteraceae. For this purpose, ca. 400 localities were examined in the field. Moreover, data acquired from the literature and European and Asian herbaria were used.
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Authors and Affiliations

Renata Piwowarczyk
Magdalena Denysenko-Bennett
Grzegorz Góralski
Dagmara Kwolek
Óscar Sánchez Pedraja
Patryk Mizia
Magdalena Cygan
Andrzej J. Joachimiak
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Exposure of green algae Chlorella vulgaris to short-term UV-B radiation (280 nm – 315 nm) induced several changes in the function of photosystem II (PS II) studied by means of chlorophyll fluorescence (FL) and oxygen evolving. The intensity of photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity of algae suspension decreased in a similar way to the FL parameter values in proportion to the applied dose of UV-B radiation (0.0, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8 kJ·m-2). The correlation between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FO ratio was better than that between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FM. The vitality index (Rfd) in the UV-B irradiated algae strongly decreased, compared to the control, which indicates inhibition of potential CO2 fixation and cooperation between light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. It may indicate damage of Rubisco.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elżbieta Skórska
Antoni Murkowski
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During the research interaction of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) in epinasty and/or hyponasty, as well as petiole growth of Bryophyllum calycinum were investigated. Exogenously applied IAA as a lanolin paste was extremely effective to induce epinasty and/or hyponasty accompanied with petiole elongation in intact B. calycinum. Application of IAA around or to the upper side of the petiole was much more effective than that to the lower side, suggesting that petiole epidermal cells on the adaxial side of B. calycinum are more sensitive and/or susceptive to IAA than those on the abaxial one. This is supported by the fact that not only the second curvature but also the first one in B. calycinum was enhanced by application of IAA to the upper side of the petiole. The degree of epinasty and/or hyponasty induced by IAA is strongly related to the increase of petiole growth. On the other hand, JA-Me significantly inhibited IAA-inducing epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth in intact B. calycinum. When detached leaves with petioles were placed leaf blade face down, clear petiole bending was observed. However, no petiole bending was found when detached leaves were placed leaf blade face up. Exogenously applied IAA to petioles was significantly effective to induce and/or stimulate petiole bending in placing detached leaves of B. calycinum face down but ethephon was not, suggesting that transport and/or movement of endogenous auxin produced in the leaf blade are necessary to induce petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum and that ethylene derived from exogenously applied IAA does not play an important role in epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole bending in B. calycinum. The mechanisms of IAA-enhancing and JA-Me-inhibiting epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth are intensively discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Junichi Ueda
Justyna Góraj-Koniarska
Kensuke Miyamoto
Marian Saniewski
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The present work deals with population-based meiotic studies on eight species belonging to four genera of the family Commelinaceae from different regions of Kangra Valley which is well known for its rich floristic diversity. At the world level, different cytotypes for four species such as Commelina hasskarlii (2n = 22, 60), C. kurzii (2n = 60), Murdannia nudiflora (2n = 24) and M. spirata (2n = 24) have been recorded for the first time at various ploidy levels. Additionally, from India, the new chromosome count for Tradescantia pallida (2n = 24) has been reported at the tetraploid level. The course of meiosis has been found to be normal in all the populations of Commelina benghalensis, C. paludosa, Murdannia nudiflora and M. spirata while four species, Commelina hasskarlii, C. kurzii, Cyanotis cristata and Tradescantia pallida have shown a normal to abnormal meiotic course in different populations. These meiotic abnormalities have revealed a clear effect on the pollen size and pollen fertility.
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Authors and Affiliations

Harpreet Kaur

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PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
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BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
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