Applied sciences

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management

Content

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management | 2019 | vol. 35 | No 4 |

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Abstract

The article analyzes the present state of the phosphate raw material base to meet Ukrainian chemical enterprises’ needs. In Ukraine, a number of complex apatite and phosphorite deposits have been explored. Their exploitation can lead to a complete supply of Ukrainian chemical enterprises with raw materials and can partly reduce the amount of expensive imported phosphate mineral fertilizers. At present, the following deposits, where apatite is connected with other useful components, are prepared for exploitation: Stremyhorod, Fedorivka, Novopoltavka, Kropyvna and others. The advantage of the development of these deposits is the possibility to extract apatite along with the production of rare earth concentrates, ilmenite, titanomagnetite, as well as feldspars, olivine, pyroxenes, mica and others which will significantly increase the profitability of the deposits development.

The alternative to apatite-containing deposits in Ukraine can be sedimentary deposits of nodule, granular and mixed type phosphorites. Phosphorite deposits can be used mainly for the production of phosphorite and limestone flour. Considerable resources of granular phosphorites have been discovered in Volyn-Podillia and Dnieper-Donetsk which are considered to have a various agricultural effect. They are environmentally friendly ores without impurity which prevents plants from cesium, strontium and reduces nitrates in the soil. Arranging the exploration of phosphorite ores in certain parts of Volyn-Podillia basin and Dnieper-Donets Rift is recommended.

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Authors and Affiliations

Miroslav Syvyi
Petro Demyanchuk
Bohdan Havryshok
Bohdan Zablotskyi
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Abstract

The occurrence of gas confined in shales allows us to consider it as a component of the host rock. During drilling wells, the gas is released into the drilling fluid from finely ground gas-bearing rock particles. The amount of gas released can be determined on the basis of mud-gas logging; in addition, it is possible to determine the gas-content in shales expressed by the volume of gas released per mass unit of rock [m3/ton]. The gas content in the Ordovician and Silurian shales (Sasin formation and Jantar member respectively) in two selected wells in northern Poland was determined using this method. It has been found that clearly distinguishable, highly gas-bearing sections, which are separated by very poorly gas-bearing ones, can be determined in the well log. The increased gas content in shales can be observed in zones generally enriched in TOC. No direct correlation between TOC and gas-bearing capacity was found however, but the structure of TOC variability and the gas-bearing capacity described using variograms is identical. Correlations of the distinguished gas-bearing layers in the wells under consideration suggest a multi-lens or multi-layered reservoir model. The lack of natural boundaries in the shale gas reservoir means that they must be determined arbitrarily based on the assumed marginal gas-bearing capacity. In the case of several gas-bearing zones, numerous variants of interpretation are possible. In any case the low, best and high estimated resources may be evaluated, assigned to each borehole in the area with radii equal to the range of variogram of gas content in horizontal part of the well.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Nieć
Angelika Musiał
Justyna Auguścik
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Abstract

In the world-class Cu-Ag deposits of the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGCD), constant bulk density values are adopted to estimate the ore and metal resources within them based on the results of previous studies of the LGCD deposits carried out at the stage of their exploration and documentation: 2.6 Mg/m3 for the carbonate series, 2.5 Mg/m3 for the shale series, and 2.3 Mg/m3 for the sandstone series. The main purpose of research was to analyze the range of possible differences at local scale of observation between constant values of bulk densities (hereinafter referred to as reference values) assigned during deposit documentation to the main lithological units and bulk densities of these units determined based on the results of experimental sampling of individual lithological units within the exploited copper and silver deposits (Lubin, Polkowice-Sieroszowice and Rudna). In general, when it comes to Cu-Ag LGCD deposits (or their large parts), the relative diversity of estimates of average bulk densities of ores based on the results of experimental sampling (more than 1,600 samples from different individual lithological units were collected at 500 sampling points in mining excavations) and reference values is low (with a median not exceeding 3%). The results of studies indicate, however, that the application of reference bulk densities at the local observation scale may result in significant underestimation (up to nearly 20%) or overestimation (up to 11%) of real bulk densities of the main lithological units. This may have a noticeable impact on the correct estimation of ore and metal resources in small parts of deposits and, as a consequence, hinder the reconciliation of the planned and actual ore mining production.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Mucha
Monika Wasilewska-Błaszczyk
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Abstract

Among the elements that compose steel slags and blast furnace slags, metallic precipitates occur alongside the dominant glass and crystalline phases. Their main component is metallic iron, the content of which varies from about 90% to 99% in steel slags, while in blast furnace slags the presence of precipitates was identified with the proportion of metallic iron amounting to 100%. During observations using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral microanalysis it has been found that the form of occurrence of metallic precipitates is varied. There were fine drops of metal among them, surrounded by glass, larger, single precipitates in a regular, spherical shape, and metallic aggregates filling the open spaces between the crystalline phases. Tests carried out for: slags resulting from the open-hearth process, slags that are a by-product of smelting in electric arc furnaces, blast furnace slags and waste resulting from the production of ductile cast iron showed that depending on the type of slag, the proportion and form of metallic precipitates is variable and the amount of Fe in the precipitates is also varied. Research shows that in terms of quality, steel and blast furnace slag can be a potential source of iron recovery. However, further quantitative analyses are required regarding the percentage of precipitates in the composition of slags in order to determine the viability of iron recovery. This paper is the first part of a series of publications aimed at understanding the functional properties of steel and blast furnace slags in the aspect of their destructive impact on the components of devices involved in the process of their processing, which is a significant operational problem.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Norbert Wieczorek
Iwona Jonczy
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Abstract

The new boreholes drilled between 2009 and 2012 enabled a detailed exploration of the profile of the Kraków sandstone series in the Dąb area between the “Sobieski” and “Janina” mining plants, USCB (Upper Silesian Coal Basin). The core from the No. 111. bituminous coal seam was selected for further analysis. 30 intervals corresponding to the defined lithotypes were separated in the seam with a thickness of 116.8 cm. The thickness of lithotypes ranges from 10 mm to 89 mm. A microprofile of the examined seam was made using the modified method of determining microlithotypes. A quantitative determination of the maceral composition was performed for each interval corresponding to the separated lithotypes. This allowed petrographic and facies characteristics of the seam to be determined. Its lower part is dominated by lithotypes with a large share of bright coal – vitrain coal. This section of the profile was formed under conditions of a strongly flooded wet forest swamp. In the upper section of the seam, a higher macroscopic share of dull coal – durain was observed. The microscopic analysis has shown that the conditions dominant during the formation of this section were typical for swamp forest peats. New technologies also require expanding knowledge about the structure of coal seams. This is only possible with a detailed profiling of the coal seam on a macro scale combined with micro-profiling and a detailed petrographic description of the isolated lithotypes. This methodology is also useful in the facies analysis of bituminous coal seams.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Misiak
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Abstract

The geochemistry of sedimentary rocks is increasingly being used in palaeoenvironmental studies, in the identification of marine versus continental stratigraphy and in chemostratigraphic correlation. The selection of an appropriate research methodology, particularly in terms of sample digestion, can have a significant impact on the accuracy of the results obtained. Depending on the type of rock being studied and the aim of the analysis, a suitable mixture of acids should be used. The most commonly used sample digestion methods are based on a mixture of four acids (multi-acid), aqua regia and inverse aqua regia. As opposed to multi-acid whole-rock digestion, the use of aqua regia and inverse aqua regia result in only the partial digestion of sedimentary rocks. Geochemical analyses using these two different methods were carried out on Carboniferous sedimentary rocks from the Lublin Coal Basin from Poland.The elemental concentrations obtained showed essentially different results for some of the elements. A comparison of the elemental concentrations allowed the distinction of three groups of elements:

 - those that showed small differences between the results from the preparation methods (Co, Mn, Bi, Cu, Zn and Fe),

- those where the elemental concentrations were 20–50% lower using aqua regia digestion (i.e. Ni, P, Pb, Mg, Cd, Th, Mo, Sr),

 - elemental concentrations that were significantly lower (by up to 80%) following aqua regia digestion (U, Cr, Ba, Na, V, Al, Rb, K, Zr).

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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Krzeszowska
Magdalena Kokowska-Pawłowska
Światosław Krzeszowski
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Abstract

The Polish power generation system is based mostly on coal-fired power plants. Therefore, the coal mining sector is strongly sensitive to changes in the energy sector, of which decarbonization is the crucial one. The EU Emission Trading System (EU ETS) requires power generating companies to purchase European Emission Allowances (EUAs), whose prices have recently soared. They have a direct impact on the cost efficiency of hard coal-fired power generation, hence influence the consumption of hard coal on the power sector. In this context, the objective of this paper is to estimate the hard coal consumption in various regions of Poland under selected forecasts of the EUA price. To investigate this question, two models are employed:

 - the PolPower_LR model that simulates the Polish power generation system,

 - the FSM _LR model that optimizes hard coal supplies.

Three scenarios differentiated by the EUA price are designed for this study. In the first one, the average EUA price from 2014–2017 is assumed. In the second and third, the EUA prices are assumed accordingly to the NPS and the SDS scenario of the World Energy Outlook. In this study we consider only existing, modernized, under construction and announced coal-fired power generation units. The results of the study indicate that regardless of the scenario, a drop in hard coal consumption by power generation units is observed in the entire period of analysis. However, the dynamics of these changes differ. The results of this analysis prove that the volume of hard coal consumption may differ by even 136 million Mg (in total) depending on the EUA prices development scenario. The highest cumulated volume of hard coal consumption is observed in the Opolski, Radomski and Sosnowiecki region, regardless of the considered scenario.

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Authors and Affiliations

Przemysław Kaszyński
Aleksandra Komorowska
Jacek Kamiński
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Abstract

The problem of the migration of metal ions in the environment remains a current problem in light of the quality of obtained crops. The necessity of more and more frequent use of alternative sources of biogens in the form of waste substances, poses a threat of loading significant amounts of metals into the soil – including heavy metals harmful to human health and life. The article discusses a significant problem, namely the comparison of the results of the environmental impact of waste, obtained on the basis of legally authorized leaching tests (three-stage leaching test according to PN-EN 12457:2006), with results obtained from sequential chemical extraction (performed in 4-step chemical extraction developed and recommended in European Union countries by Communities Bureau of References – BCR). The study covered an investigation of industry fly ash from the combustion of lignite, in which Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Na, K, Li concentrations and loads were calculated. A mobility of analyzed elements was established on this basis. From heavy metals, the highest values in fraction I were noted for nickel and copper and zinc as well as nickel were noted for fraction IV . Peaking values of electrolytic conductivity in eluates was created by high concentrations of macroelements (Na and K). These tests confirm that the leaching tests used for their application in the natural environment indicate such concentrations at the highest levels that can be obtained at the first or second stage of sequential chemical extraction, and thus their proper full environmental impact is not known.

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Authors and Affiliations

Czesława Rosik-Dulewska
Urszula Karwaczyńska
Tomasz Ciesielczuk
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Abstract

This article presents a concept method which aids the forecasting of the reclamation cost in post- rock mining areas. The method may also prove useful in estimating the investment profitability of a mining operation at its planning stage as well as managing a potential Reserve Fund to cover future activities, such as land reclamation. The development of the method consisted in defining a set of basic/typical land reclamation directions and the typical structure of reclamation operations/works, which are based on “statistically stable” values. The estimations included the distribution of the probable cost of these works with respect to the reclamation direction and were calculated on the basis of the analyzed current price lists and historical land reclamation projects. The article proposes a method for estimating the cost structure of multi-directional projects by combining the basic directions. The changeability and predictability of various land reclamation solutions was analyzed in terms of fuzzy logic. A price list was developed, which included unit costs for separate types of reclamation works, independent of their type and scale. The assumed optimal measure involved comparing the cost of individual types of operations to the surface of the reclamation area. As an example, the method was also applied to hypothetical data from a clastic rock mine with a surface of 20 ha, and for the forest, agricultural and forest-agricultural reclamation directions. The forest-agricultural reclamation directions was presented in the proportions of 0.3:0.7.

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Authors and Affiliations

Urszula Kaźmierczak
Jerzy Malewski
Paweł Strzałkowski
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Abstract

There are a huge number of objects constituting a storage place of coal mining waste in the coal basins in Poland and around the world. The article is a continuation of the study on the possibilities of using raw materials deposited on the coal mining waste dumping grounds on the example of the Przezchlebie dumping ground. The possibility of coal recovery from mining waste located on the dumping ground was analyzed. Tests on the quality parameters of waste were carried out, i.e. moisture and ash content, as well as the calorific value of raw waste. The relatively high calorific value and low ash content in the waste served as the basis for further tests related to the separation of coal. Tests on the mining waste enrichment using the complex based on the K-102 Komag pulse separator were carried out. As a result of coal separation, 7.66% of concentrate was obtained (in relation to feed) with the calorific value of 26.16 MJ/kg and ash content of 19.96%. Apart from mining waste, power plant waste (fly ash) can also be found on the dumping ground. They were subjected to tests for the possibility of using them in the production of construction materials, especially concrete and cement. Fly ash from the Przezchlebie dumping ground was classified as silica ash and it was found that it meets the requirements of Polish standard, except for the fineness of 42%. The separation of coal will eliminate the fire hazard on the dumping ground. A possible scenario of managing waste material on a dumping ground, which can be implemented in similar facilities, has been presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zenon Różański

Editorial office

Editorial Board
  • Editor-in-Chief: Eugeniusz Mokrzycki
  • Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Ryszard Uberman (section: mining)
  • Editorial Secretary: Krzysztof Galos (section: mineralogy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Lidia Gawlik (section: mineral and energy economy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Beata Klojzy-Karczmarczyk (section: environmental engineering in mining)
  • Statistical Editor: Jacek Mucha
Advisory Board
  • Mattias Bäckström, Assistant Professor, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  • Wiesław Blaschke, PhD(Eng), Professor, The Institute of Mechanised Construction and Rock Mining, Katowice, Poland
  • Jan Butra, Professor, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland
  • Dennis L. Buchanan, Professor, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  • Michal Cehlár – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
  • Józef Dubiński, Professor, The Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
  • Jakub Jirasek, Associate Professor, The Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
  • Roman Magda, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Antonio Mateus, Professor, Universidade de Lisboa, Lizbona, Portugal
  • Jacek Motyka, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Marek Nieć, DSc(Eng), Professor, The MEERI PAS, Kraków, Poland
  • James Otto, Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA
  • Marian Radetzki, Professor, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
  • Anton Sroka, Professor, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, University of Resources, Freiberg, Germany
  • Krzysztof Szamałek, Professor, The University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Günter Tiess, Assistant Professor, MinPol GmbH, Dreistetten, Austria
Publishing Committee
  • Emilia Rydzewska – linguistic editor (Polish)
  • Michelle Atallah – linguistic editor (English)
  • Barbara Sudoł – technical editor

Contact

Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of
Sciences J. Wybickiego 7A, 31-261 Kraków,
Phone: (+48) 12 632 33-00, Fax: +48 12 632 35-24
Email: gsm@min-pan.krakow.pl

Additional information

The subject matter of the articles published in Mineral Resources Management covers issues related to minerals and raw materials, as well as mineral deposits, with particular emphasis on:

  • The scientific basis for mineral resources management,
  • The strategy and methodology of prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits,
  • Methods of rational management and use of deposits,
  • The rational exploitation of deposits and the reduction in the loss of raw materials,
  • Mineral resources management in processing technologies,
  • Environmental protection in the mining industry,
  • Optimization of mineral deposits and mineral resources management,
  • The rational use of mineral resources,
  • The economics of mineral resources,
  • The raw materials market,
  • Raw materials policy,
  • The use of accompanying minerals,
  • The use of secondary raw materials and waste,
  • Raw material recycling,
  • The management of waste from the mining industry.

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