Testing of image intensifier tubes is still done using mostly manual methods due to a series of both technical and legal problems with test automation. Computerized stations for semi-automated testing of IITs are considered as novelty and are under continuous improvements. This paper presents a novel test station that enables semi-automated measurement of image intensifier tubes. Wide test capabilities and advanced design solutions rise the developed test station significantly above the current level of night vision metrology.
Dynamic angle measurement (DAM) plays an important role in precision machining, aerospace, military and artificial intelligence. Because of its advantages including high sensitivity, solid state and miniaturization, fibre-optic gyroscope (FOG) has great application prospects in the field of DAM. In this paper, we propose a dynamic angle metrology method based on FOG and a rotary table to evaluate the DAMaccuracy with FOG. The system synchronously collects data from the FOG and rotary table, and analyses the DAM accuracy of the FOG for different sway conditions compared with that of the angle obtained from the rotary table. An angle encoder in the rotary table provides absolute or incremental angular displacement output with angular displacement measurement accuracy of 10′′ (0:0028◦) and angular displacement repeat positioning accuracy of 3′′ (0:00083◦), and can be used as an angle reference. The experimental results show that the DAM accuracy of the FOG is better than 0:0028◦ obtained with the angular encoder, and the absolute DAM accuracy of the FOG is better than 0:0048◦ for given conditions. At the same time, for the multi-path signal synchronization problem in the metrology field, this paper proposes a signal delay measurement method combining test and algorithm procedures, which can control a delay within 25 #22;s.
The article presents the methodology to estimate the operator influence on measurements performed with a coordinate measuring arm. The research was based on the R&R analysis, adapted to the specifics of redundant devices such as ACMM (selection of a test object difficult to measure). The method provides for measurements by three operators, who measure ten parts in two or three samples (measurement data developed in the article relate to the three measurements of holes). The methodology is designed to identify which operator has the best predisposition to perform measurements (generates the smallest measurement errors). Statistica software was used to analyse and visualize measurement data.
This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.
The paper presents examinations of the surface of base concrete with a 3D scanner. Two base concrete surfaces, differently prepared, were examined, together with two measurement strategies: simple and fast 3D scanning and partial scanning in selected areas corresponding to the device measurement space. In order to complete the analysis of a concrete surface topography an original Matlab-based program TAS (Topography Analysis and Simulation) was developed for both 2D and 3D surface analyses. It enables data processing, calculation of parameters, data visualization and digital filtration.
This paper presents a preoperative hip reconstruction method with diagnosed osteoarthritis using Durom Hip Resurfacing System (DHRS). The method is based on selection and application of the resurfacing to the pelvis reconstructed on the basis of computed tomography. Quality and geometrical parameters of distinguished tissues have a fundamental significance for locating and positioning the acetabular and femoral components. The application precedes the measurements of anatomical structures on a complex numerical model. The developed procedure enables functional selection of endo-prosthesis and its positioning in such a way that it secures geometric parameters within the bone bed and the depth , inclination angles and ante-version of the acetabular component, the neck-shaft angle and ante-torsion angle of the neck of the femoral bone, and reconstruction of the biomechanical axis of the limb and the physiological point of rotation in the implanted joint. Proper biomechanics of the bone-joint complex of the lower limb is determined by correlation of anatomical-geometrical parameters of the acetabular component and parameters of the femoral bone.
This paper concerns the issues of measurement techniques, analysis and assessment of the machined surface geometric structure. The aim of this work was to show the application of surface analysis in diagnosing the causes of discrepancies occurring in the manufacturing process, which may result from ill-matched (poorly fitting) process parameters. An appropriate system of control and interpretation of results may allow early reaction to unfavorable trends (for example blunting of the tool) and prevention of undesirable defects. The subject of research was a waste basket used in the construction of retaining sewer systems. In this paper, the quality of the waste basket as well as its manufacturing process were analyzed and assessed. The research was carried out with the use of three measurement stands, i.e. optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer (WLI). The surface analysis proved to be important from the viewpoint of outlining the production process as well as improving the product quality. The software used for topographical analysis appeared to be significant for the success of the analysis, providing notable economic effects, namely the lack of defects.
A set of sound power assessments was performed to determine measurement precision in specified conditions by the comparison method in a reverberation room with a fixed position array of six microphones. Six blenders (or mixers) and, complementary, a reference sound source were the noise sources. Five or six sound power calculations were undertaken on each noise source, and the standard deviation (sr) was computed as “measurement precision under repeatability conditions” for each octave band from 125 Hz to 8 kHz, and in dB(A). With the results obtained, values of sr equal 1.0 dB for 125 Hz and 250 Hz, 0.8 dB for 500 Hz to 2 kHz, and 0.5 dB for 4 kHz and 8 kHz. Those can be considered representative as sound power precision for blenders according to the measurement method used. The standard deviation of repeatability for the A-weighted sound power level equals 0.6 dB. This paper could be used for house or laboratory tests to check where their uncertainty assessment for sound power determination is similar or not to those generated at the National Metrology Institute.
The present work offers new equations for phase evaluation in measurements. Several phase-shifting equations with an arbitrary but constant phase-shift between captured intensity signs are proposed. The equations are similarly derived as the so called Carré equation. The idea is to develop a generalization of the Carré equation that is not restricted to four images. Errors and random noise in the images cannot be eliminated, but the uncertainty due to their effects can be reduced by increasing the number of observations. An experimental analysis of the errors of the technique was made, as well as a detailed analysis of errors of the measurement. The advantages of the proposed equation are its precision in the measures taken, speed of processing and the immunity to noise in signs and images.
Digital photoelasticity is an important optical metrology follow-up for stress and strain analysis using full-field digital photographic images. Advances in digital image processing, data acquisition, procedures for pattern recognition and storage capacity enable the use of the computer-aided technique in automation and facilitate improvement of the digital photoelastic technique. The objective of this research is to find new equations for a novel phase-shifting method in digital photoelasticity. Some innovations are proposed. In terms of phaseshifting, only the analyzer is rotated, and the other equations are deduced by applying a new numerical technique instead of the usual algebraic techniques. This approach can be used to calculate a larger sequence of images. Each image represents a pattern and a measurement of the stresses present in the object. A decrease in the mean errors was obtained by increasing the number of observations. A reduction in the difference between the theoretical and experimental values of stresses was obtained by increasing the number of images in the equations for calculating phase. Every photographic image has errors and random noise, but the uncertainties due to these effects can be reduced with a larger number of observations. The proposed method with many images and high accuracy is a good alternative to the photoelastic techniques.
Spatial light modulators (SLM) are devices used to modulate amplitude, phase or polarization of a light wave in space and time. Current SLMs are based either on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) or LCD (liquid crystal display) technology. Here we report on the parameters, trends in development and applications of phase SLMs based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) technology. LCoS technology was developed for front and rear projection systems competing with AMLCD (active matrix LCD) and DMD (Digital Mirror Device) SLM. The reflective arrangement due to silicon backplane allows to put a high number of pixels in a small panel, keeping the fill-factor ratio high even for micron-sized pixels. For coherent photonics applications the most important type of LCoS SLM is a phase modulator. In the paper at first we describe the typical parameters of this device and the methods for its calibration. Later we present a review of applications of phase LCoS SLMs in imaging, metrology and beam manipulation, developed by the authors as well as known from the literature. These include active and adaptive interferometers, a smart holographic camera and holographic display, microscopy modified in illuminating and imaging paths and active sensors.
The paper is focused on the main problems of modern metrology in the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution “Industry 4.0”, particularly in the field of qualimetry. The dominant issues of the methodology of qualimetrical measurement, as the interrelation between metrology and qualimetry, are considered. The following questions are raised and analysed: determination of the measurand in the qualimetrical measurement, creation of the virtual product quality pattern, determination of the product quality level by using the theory of multidimensional scaling, assurance of the metrological traceability of the qualimetrical measurement results. A procedure of performing the qualimetrical measurement is described.