The investigation was carried out on forest soils collected from areas subject to variable pollution. The fraction of strontium was analyzed in soil samples from north-eastern Poland (Borki forest division), treated as a non-polluted region (natural background) and in soil samples from central (Rogów forest division) and south-western Poland (Świerklaniec forest division). The sequential extraction procedure was applied in this study to separate the fractions of strontium. Five fractions were analyzed in every genetic horizon according to the Tessier method. The concentration of strontium was also analyzed in the plants. Both results were compared in order to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of the trace elements in the environment. The content, distribution and bioavailability of the strontium fractions were investigated with particular emphasis on the contaminated study sites. Total content of strontium in surface horizons depended on the localization. Among analysed fractions strontium, in organic soil horizons, regardless of localization, occurred predominantly in mobile fractions in all examined soils.
Solanaceae plants have strong allelopathic potential, and therefore the action is confirmed through: a) bioassays with liquid or various solvent extracts and residues, b) fractionation, identification, and quantification of causative allelochemicals. Most assessments of allelopathy involve bioassays of plant or soil extracts, leachates, fractions, and residues which support seed germination and seedling growth in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Plant growth is also stimulated below the allelopathic threshold, however severe growth reductions may be observed above the threshold concentration depending on the sensitivity of the receiving species. Generally, seedling growth is more sensitive than germination, particularly root growth. Some approaches showed that field soil collected beneath donor plants significantly reduced or somewhat promoted the growth of the recipients plants. Petri dish bioassays with aqueous extracts of different parts of donor plants showed considerable phytotoxic activities in a concentration-dependent manner with leaf aqueous extracts being most dominant. Delayed seed germination and slow root growth attributable to the extracts may be baffled with diffusion effects on the rate of imbibition, delayed initiation of germination, and particularly cell elongation; the main factor that is responsible for affecting root growth before and after the tip penetrates the testa. Light and electron microscopy extract analysis at the ultrastructural level are correctly investigated. Several Solanaceae plants have allelopathic potential, and therefore the activities, kinds and quantity of allelopathic compounds differ depending on the plant species. The incorporation of allelopathic substances into agricultural management might scale back the development of pesticides and reduce environmental deterioration.
Antarctic krill carbohydrate content was followed during 1983—84 Eighth Polish Antarctic Expedition. The Admiralty Bay (King George Island) was th area of study. The following average values of three estimated fractions were obtained: 3.77 +- 1.51%, 0.47 +- 0.34% and 3.30 +- 1.33% for total, TCA-soluble and TCA-insoluble carbohydrates, respectively. Percentage contribution of the estimated fractions to dry weight varied seasonally (1.48—7.41%, 0.15—1.83%, and 1.28—6.28%, respectively). The carbohydrate content showed a clearcut cycle of changes over the calender year, with a minimum in autumn-winter and a maximum in spring-summer.
Changes in the amount of basic nitrogen fractions (total, protein and non-protein nitrogen) were studied in an annual cycle. Significant seasonal changes were noted, minima occurring in Antarctic winter and maxima during spring-summer season. These changes are due mainly to high fluctuations of water content in krill in the annual cycle.
In our recent study we demonstrated that the holding of fresh semen in fractionated seminal plasma (SP1, >40 kDa; SP2, <40 kDa), obtained by gel filtration chromatography, significantly improved the sperm quality characteristics following cryopreservation (Wasilewska-Sakowska et al. 2019). In this study we investigated the effect of post-thaw (PT) supplementation of fractionated SP (SP1 and SP2) on the survival of spermatozoa from boars with good and poor semen freezability, GSF and PSF, respectively. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) analysis showed distinct differences in the protein profiles of SP1 and SP2 from boars with GSF or PSF regarding the number of protein spots. Sperm motility characteristics and the motion patterns, assessed using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system, were markedly higher in PT semen supplemented with SP1 and SP2 from boars with GSF. Post-thaw supplementation of either SP1 or SP2 from boars with GSF significantly improved mitochondrial function, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, and viability during storage. The findings of this study have confirmed that the presence of protective protein components in varying abundance in either fractionated SP from boars with good freezability ejaculates significantly improved the sperm survival following PT storage.
The stability analysis for discrete-time fractional linear systems with delays is presented. The state-space model with a time shift in the difference is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for practical stability and for asymptotic stability have been established. The systems with only one matrix occurring in the state equation at a delayed moment have been also considered. In this case analytical conditions for asymptotic stability have been given. Moreover parametric descriptions of the boundary of practical stability and asymptotic stability regions have been presented.
The efficient, stable and reliable operation of the blast furnace secures the proper quality of coke, which is one of the basic components of the blast furnace charge. In modern blast-furnace technology, when using substitute fuels, i.e. coal dust, the role of coke is extremely important. For this reason, the demands placed on its quality increase. Domestic coking plants have a limited base of Polish high quality coking coals at their disposal, therefore the full use of their coking properties is extremely important. The grain composition of the coal blend is one of the basic factors affecting the quality of the produced coke. This influence depends on the quantity and quality of coal components that make up the blend. In the conducted research, 21 coking coals, differing significantly in the degree of rank and origin (Polish and overseas coals), it was shown that the separated grain classes differ in properties, both coking properties and the degree of devolatalization during heating. In analyzing the obtained results, it was observed that the grain volume growth occurs essentially in the temperature range between the beginning and the maximum of fluidity. It has been shown that there is a linear correlation between the temperature corresponding to maximum fluidity and the temperature at which the maximum rate of evolution of volatiles enters. The presented phenomena accompany the emergence of coal expansion pressure during the coking process and they are its primary causes. The presented results can be an important guide for preparing the milling of coal for the coking process.
The article focuses on the fractional-order backward difference, sum, linear time-invariant equation analysis, and difficulties of the fractional calculus microcontroller implementation with regard to designing a fractional-order proportional integral derivative (FOPID) controller. In opposite to the classic proportional integral derivative (PID), the FOPID controller is defined by five independent parameters. Hence, it is more customizable and, potentially, more precise on condition that the values of fractional integration and differentiation orders are properly selected. However, a number of operations and the time required to calculate the output signal continuously increase. This can be a significant problem considering the limitations of a microcontroller, including memory size and a constant sampling time of the set-up analog-to-digital (ADC) converters. In the article, three solutions are considered, and results obtained in the experiments are presented.
Results of the studies for determining fractions of organic contaminants in a pretreated petrochemical wastewater flowing into a pilot Aerated Submerged Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactor (ASFBBR) are presented and discussed. The method of chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation consisted of physical tests and biological assays. It was found that the main part of the total COD in the petrochemical, pretreated wastewater was soluble organic substance with average value of 57.6%. The fractions of particulate and colloidal organic matter were found to be 31.8% and 10.6%, respectively. About 40% of COD in the influent was determined as readily biodegradable COD. The inert fraction of the soluble organic matter in the petrochemical wastewater constituted about 60% of the influent colloidal and soluble COD. Determination of degree of hydrolysis (DH) of the colloidal fraction of COD was also included in the paper. The estimated value of DH was about 62%. Values of the assayed COD fractions were compared with the same parameters obtained for municipal wastewater by other authors.
The problem of of the use of fly ash still constitutes a research and exploration area for scientists. This is due to the fact that, 6,000,000 Mg of coal combustion by-products (CCB) are storage on landfills yearly in Poland alone. One of the potential directions of using fly ash is to use it as a substrate in hydrothermal syntheses of mesoporous materials (synthetic zeolites). Zeolites are aluminosilicates with a spatial structure. Due to their specific structure they are characterized by a number of specific properties among others molecular-sieve, ion-exchange and catalytic that can be used in engineering and environmental protection. So far, the synthesis has been carried out using coal combustion by-products such as fly ash or microsphere. The article analyzes whether separation from the fly ash of the appropriate fraction (below 63 μm) will affect the formation of zeolite grains. The syntheses were carried out using class F fly ash and the fraction separated from it, which was obtained by sieving the ash through a 63 μm sieve. Chemical (XRF) and mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS) analyzes were carried out for substrates as well as the obtained reaction products. In the case of substrates, the analysis did not show any significant differences between the ash and the separated fraction. However, in products after synthesis (Na-X zeolite with a small amount of Na-P1 zeolite, and small amounts of quartz and unreacted aluminosilicate glass - mullite) higher aluminum and sodium contents were observed from the separated fraction, with a lower calcium and potassium content. A small proportion of illite was observed on the diffraction curve of the zeolite from the fraction. Observations of grain morphology showed no differences in formation. Based on the conducted analyzes, it can be stated that, considering the economics of the synthesis process, the separation of fine fractions from the fly ash does not affect the quality of the synthesis process.
Electrophoretic methods were used to identify protein complexes formed between ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein fractions (LPFo) with seminal plasma (SP) of fractionated ejaculates, and to investigate the effect of these complexes on boar semen quality after cryopreservation. Chromatographic SP fractions (F1, F2 and F3), with or without LPFo solution, were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Comparative electrophoretic analyses of the SP revealed marked differences in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles among boars. Electrophoretic analyses showed that the interactions of LPFo with SP resulted in the appearance of high-intensity protein bands. Spermatozoa were exposed to SP chromatographic fractions originating from F1, F2 and F3, and the whole SP (wSP) before being frozen. Spermatozoa exposed to F1 and F2 exhibited significantly higher post-thaw motility compared to those treated with either F3 or wSP. In most of the boars the proportions of membrane-intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa differed among the treatments, being significantly lower in the wSP-treated samples. The incidence of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation was less prevalent in samples exposed to F3 or the wSP. The results of this study confirmed that the interactions of LPFo with fractionated SP during the cooling period contributed to alterations in the sperm membranes, rendering them less susceptible to temperature-related injury.
The paper discusses the modelling of magnetic coupling in ignition coils by fractional differential equations. The use of fractional-order coupling allows us to consider the losses caused by the non-linearity of the ferromagnetic core of the ignition coil and obtain the waveform of the ignition coil’s secondary voltage closest to the values obtained experimentally.
Samples of steam coal used in heat and power plants as well as densimetric fractions obtained on a laboratory scale by dense organic liquid separation have been examined. The contents of ash, mercury, chromium, cadmium, copper, nickel and lead have been determined in coal, in the light and medium fraction as well as in the refuse. The degree of removal of mineral matter and the examined heavy metals as well as the coal combustible parts yield have been determined. Examination of 5 coals revealed that it is possible to remove 41% of mercury and more than 35% of other heavy metals bound to mineral matter in coal.
Work is being carried out on possibilities of limiting the content of mercury in hard coal products by gravity concentration of run-of-mine coal in the Branch of the Institute of Mechanized Construction and Rock Mining in Katowice and on the Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. Under domestic industrial conditions, gravity concentration is carried out with heavy medium liquids and in jigs. Preliminary - pilot studies have shown the possibility of mercury removal also by using the dry deshaling method involving vibratory air separators. Mercury is mainly found in the pyrite and the rubble formed by the mineral carbon, but also in the organic carbon. Some of it is located in layers of coal roof fields, which in the course of their exploitation go to coal. The mercury removal efficiency during the gravity concentration process will depend on the decomposition of the listed components in the density fractions. The paper presents the results of investigations of total mercury and total sulphur content in the separated coal fractions from four mines. These contents were determined in fractions: –1.5 g/cm3 (conventionally clean coal – concentrate), 1.5–1.8 g/cm3 (conventionally middlings) and +1.8 g/cm3 (conventionally rock – waste). The results are summarized in Tables 3–5 and in Charts 1–4. Conversely, graphs 5-8 show the relationship between mercury content and total sulphur content in the tested coal samples. The study, which can be called a preliminary analysis of the susceptibility of the coals to gravity concentration, showed that the dry deshaling method on the vibratory air separators would allow significant amounts of mercury accumulated in the middlings and waste fractions to be removed.