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According to European Bison Pedigree Book, wisent population in Poland by the end of 2016 counted 1698 individuals, including 1455 animals in freedom. Therefore in Poland, live over 25% of presently living wisents, i.e. the largest population of this species in the world. Next to our state borders, there are free ranging populations in Belarus – Białowieska Forest about 480 individuals, in Ukraine – National Park Beskyd Skolyvski – 33, and Slovakia – National Park Poloniny – 27 wisents. Planned is the establishment of new transboundary populations at Landscape Park of Lower Oder River Valley, at Romincka, and Augustowska Forests. In many places where transboundary populations already exist or are planned, their potential joint home ranges are divided by anthro-pogenic (fencing – Ukraine, Belarus) or natural barriers (Oder River – Germany). The basic prob-lem for creating such populations will be either elimination of such barriers or introduction of passages allowing for animals' movements. Benefits provided by transboundary populations are: larger area of available habitats, a possi-bility for the maintenance of larger populations, and a chance for mitigation of isolation among particular herds. However possible problems include: more difficult population management due to differences in formal status of the species in particular countries, complicated budgeting of costs connected with maintenance of such herds and compensation of damages, and a possibility for a transmission of infectious diseases, not occurring at territory of one of neighbouring countries. Therefore, creation of transboundary populations of wisents is desirable regarding the possibility of extension of their home ranges and increase of effective numbers. Effectiveness of such initiatives will however depend upon a possibility for stable international agreements and routine coopera-tion. Very important is an establishment of an uniform formal status of this species in Europe or at last in EU member countries.
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