In the paper, a procedure for precise and expedited design optimization of unequal power split patch couplers is proposed. Our methodology aims at identifying the coupler dimensions that correspond to the circuit operating at the requested frequency and featuring a required power split. At the same time, the design process is supposed to be computationally efficient. The proposed methodology involves two types of auxiliary models (surrogates): an inverse one, constructed from a set of reference designs optimized for particular power split values, and a forward one which represents the circuit S-parameter gradients as a function of the power split ratio. The inverse model directly yields the values of geometry parameters of the coupler for any required power split, whereas the forward model is used for a post-scaling correction of the circuit characteristics. For the sake of illustration, a 10-GHz circular sector patch coupler is considered. The power split ratio of the structure is re-designed within a wide range of ��6 dB to 0 dB. As demonstrated, precise scaling (with the power split error smaller than 0.02 dB and the operating frequency error not exceeding 0.05 GHz) can be achieved at the cost of less than three full-wave EM simulations of the coupler. Numerical results are validated experimentally.
The aim of the studywas to find an effective method of ripple torque compensation for a direct drive with a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) without time-consuming drive identification. The main objective of the research on the development of a methodology for the proper teaching a neural network was achieved by the use of iterative learning control (ILC), correct estimation of torque and spline interpolation. The paper presents the structure of the drive system and the method of its tuning in order to reduce the torque ripple, which has a significant effect on the uneven speed of the servo drive. The proposed structure of the PMSM in the dq axis is equipped with a neural compensator. The introduced iterative learning control was based on the estimation of the ripple torque and spline interpolation. The structurewas analyzed and verified by simulation and experimental tests. The elaborated structure of the drive system and method of its tuning can be easily used by applying a microprocessor system available now on the market. The proposed control solution can be made without time-consuming drive identification, which can have a great practical advantage. The article presents a new approach to proper neural network training in cooperation with iterative learning for repetitive motion systems without time-consuming identification of the motor.
The objective of studies presented in this publication was structuring of research knowledge about the ADI functional properties and changes in these properties due to material treatment. The results obtained were an outcome of research on the selection of a format of knowledge representation that would be useful in further work aiming at the design, application and implementation of an effective system supporting the decisions of a technologist concerning the choice of a suitable material (ADI in this case) and appropriate treatment process (if necessary). ALSV(FD) logic allows easy modelling of knowledge, which should let addressees of the target system carry out knowledge modelling by themselves. The expressiveness of ALSV (FD) logic allows recording the values of attributes from the scope of the modelled domain regarding ADI, which is undoubtedly an advantage in the context of further use of the logic. Yet, although the logic by itself does not allow creating the rules of knowledge, it may form a basis for the XTT format that is rule-based notation. The difficulty in the use of XTT format for knowledge modelling is acceptable, but formalism is not suitable for the discovery of rules, and therefore the knowledge of technologist is required to determine the impact of process parameters on values that are functional properties of ADI. The characteristics of ALSV(FD) logic and XTT formalism, described in this article, cover the most important aspects of a broadly discussed, full evaluation of the applicability of these solutions in the construction of a system supporting the decisions of a technologist.
In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10–60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120–200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm-3, fly ash 50 mgm-3and the heat power range 30–100%.
The paper analyzes the influence of humidity of combusted wood biomass on the flue gas losses. A mathematical relation between flue gas losses of the boiler on wood biomass humidity is presented as well as temperature of flue gas emitted from the boiler into the atmosphere. The limits of model application for the humidity of wood biomass falls into the interval 10–60% whereas the range of temperatures of flue gases emitted from the boiler to the atmosphere is 120–200°C. The influence of the humidity of wood biomass has an adverse effect on increasing the extent of the boiler flue gas losses and thus inefficiency of the heat production. The increase of the wood biomass humidity from the value of 10% to 60% with the outlet temperature of flue gases from the boiler 120°C causes an increase in flue gas loss of the boiler from the value 8.37% to 12.43%, similarly the increase of flue gas loss by 200°C from 15.19% to 22.55%, or the increase of the flue gas loss by 7.36%.
Solar radiation reflectance was analysed to characterize Arctic ornithogenic tundra developing in the vicinity of large breeding colony of Brunnich‘s guillemots Uria lomvia and kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at the foot of Gnĺlberget cliff (Hornsund, SW Spitsbergen). Radiometric method was found to be a useful tool for studying structure and functioning of plant formations. We measured reflectance of four wavelengths: 554 nm (YG), 655 nm (RED), 870 nm (NIR) and 1650 nm (SWIR) at 10 plots situated along the transect running from the colony to the sea. Moreover, data of plant community character, species quantitative composition as well as total biomass were collected to relate these parameters with the spectral values. The results showed that radiometric data characterized vegetation well enough to recognize the same plant communities on the basis of spectral reflectance as distinguished with traditional phytosociological methods.
The following paper provides an insight into application of the contemporary heuristic methods to graph coloring problem. Variety of algorithmic solutions for the Graph Coloring Problem (GCP) are discussed and recommendations for their implementation provided. The GCP is the NP-hard problem, aiming at finding the minimum number of colors for vertices in such a way that none of two adjacent vertices are marked with the same color. With the advent of modern processing units metaheuristic approaches to solve GCP were extended to discrete optimization here. To explain the phenomenon of these methods, a thorough survey of AI-based algorithms for GCP is provided, with the main differences between specific techniques pointed out.
The article presents the discipline of celebrity studies and the perspectives of applying it to Polish historical research. Intended to be a discussion opener rather than a complete literature overview, it provides readers with basic information on the discipline, indicates potential problems, and explains the beneficial effects of developing research based on terms and definitions in celebrity studies.
W tekście wskazuję na etyczny kontekst twórczości Ryszarda Wagnera. W skrócie sygnalizuję kwestię relacji wartości estetycznych i etycznych. Zaznaczam społeczne zaangażowanie pism teoretycznych Wagnera, skupiając się na emancypacyjnym charakterze egalitarnych i rewolucyjnych tez. W kolejnym wątku opisuję wpływ myśli Schopenhauera na autora Sztuki i rewolucji. Szczególnie skupiam się na wątku miłości, wyrzeczenia, poświęcenia i zanegowania woli. W ostatniej części odnoszę się do wagnerowskiego antysemityzmu i tzw. pism regeneracyjnych.
In the paper, two preprocessing methods for virtual view synthesis are presented. In the first approach, both horizontal and vertical resolutions of the real views and the corresponding depth maps are doubled in order to perform view synthesis on images with densely arranged points. In the second method, real views are filtered in order to eliminate blurred or improperly shifted edges of the objects. Both methods are performed prior to synthesis, thus they may be applied to different Depth-Image-Based Rendering algorithms. In the paper, for both proposed methods, the achieved quality gains are presented.
Abstract In this paper we study a novel approach to the design of a robust switched controller for continuous-time systems described by a novel robust plant model using quadratic stability and multi parameter dependent quadratic stability approaches. In the proposed design procedure with an output feedback a novel quadratic cost function is proposed which allows to obtain different performance dependence on the working points. Finally a numerical examples are investigated.
Compact radiators with circular polarization are important components of modern mobile communication systems. Their design is a challenging process which requires maintaining simultaneous control over several performance figures but also the structure size. In this work, a novel design framework for multi-stage constrained miniaturization of antennas with circular polarization is presented. The method involves se- quential optimization of the radiator in respect of selected performance figures and, eventually, the size. Optimizations are performed with iteratively increased number of design constraints. Numerical efficiency of the method is ensured using a fast local-search algorithm embedded in a trust-region framework. The proposed design framework is demonstrated using a compact planar radiator with circular polarization. The optimized antenna is characterized by a small size of 271 mm2 with 37% and 47% bandwidths in respect of 10 dB return loss and 3 dB axial ratio, respectively. The structure is benchmarked against the state-of-the-art circular polarization antennas. Numerical results are confirmed by measurements of the fabricated antenna prototype.
This work examines the reduced-cost design optimization of dual- and multi-band antennas. The primary challenge is independent yet simultaneous control of the antenna responses at two or more frequency bands. In order to handle this task, a feature-based optimization approach is adopted where the design objectives are formulated on the basis of the coordinates of so-called characteristic points (or response features) of the antenna response. Due to only slightly nonlinear dependence of the feature points on antenna geometry parameters, optimization can be attained at a low computational cost. Our approach is demonstrated using two antenna structures with the optimum designs obtained in just a few dozen of EM simulations of the respective structure.
Re-design of a given antenna structure for various substrates is a practically important issue yet non trivial, particularly for wideband and ultra-wideband antennas. In this work, a technique for expedited redesign of ultra-wideband antennas for various substrates is presented. The proposed approach is based on inverse surrogate modeling with the scaling model constructed for several reference designs that are optimized for selected values of the substrate permittivity. The surrogate is set up at the level of coarse-discretization EM simulation model of the antenna and, subsequently, corrected to provide prediction at the high-fidelity EM model level. The dimensions of the antenna scaled to any substrate permittivity within the region of validity of the surrogate are obtained instantly, without any additional EM simulation necessary. The proposed approach is demonstrated using an ultra-wideband monopole with the permittivity scaling range from 2.2 to 4.5. Numerical validation is supported by physical measurements of the fabricated prototypes of the re-designed antennas.
In this paper, a novel structure of a compact UWB slot antenna and its design optimization procedure has been presented. In order to achieve a sufficient number of degrees of freedom necessary to obtain a considerable size reduction rate, the slot is parameterized using spline curves. All antenna dimensions are simultaneously adjusted using numerical optimization procedures. The fundamental bottleneck here is a high cost of the electromagnetic (EM) simulation model of the structure that includes (for reliability) an SMA connector. Another problem is a large number of geometry parameters (nineteen). For the sake of computational efficiency, the optimization process is therefore performed using variable-fidelity EM simulations and surrogate-assisted algorithms. The optimization process is oriented towards explicit reduction of the antenna size and leads to a compact footprint of 199 mm2 as well as acceptable matching within the entire UWB band. The simulation results are validated using physical measurements of the fabricated antenna prototype.