The investigations carried out during the 5th Antarctic Expedition of the Polish Academy of Sciences allowed to collect the data concerning specificity of the dynamics of sea-salt nuclei dispersed in the Antarctica region. At the established measuring point measurements at three levels were carried out, basing on which the required profile of the wind characteristics at different heights a.s.l. were obtained.
The article presents the results of research on the finishing of M63 Z4 brass by vibratory machining. Brass alloy was used for the research due to the common use of ammunition elements, cartridge case and good cold forming properties on the construction. Until now, the authors have not met with the results of research to determine the impact of abrasive pastes in container processing. It was found that the additive for container abrasive treatment of abrasive paste causes larger mass losses and faster surface smoothing effects. The treatment was carried out in two stages: in the first stage, the workpieces were deburred and then polished. Considerations were given to the impact of mass of workpieces, machining time and its type on mass loss and changes in the geometric structure of the surface. The surface roughness of machining samples was measured with the Talysurf CCI Lite optical profiler. The suggestions for future research may be to carry out tests using abrasive pastes with a larger granulation of abrasive grains, and to carry out tests for longer processing times and to determine the time after which the parameters of SGP change is unnoticeable.
The term roughness is used to describe a specific sound sensation which may occur when listening to stimuli with more than one spectral component within the same critical band. It is believed that the spectral components interact inside the cochlea, which leads to fluctuations in the neural signal and, in turn, to a sensation of roughness. This study presents a roughness model composed of two successive stages: peripheral and central. The peripheral stage models the function of the peripheral ear. The central stage predicts roughness from the temporal envelope of the signal processed by the peripheral stage. The roughness model was shown to account for the perceived roughness of various types of acoustic stimuli, including the stimuli with temporal envelopes that are not sinusoidal. It thus accounted for effects of the phase and the shape of the temporal envelope on roughness. The model performance was poor for unmodulated bandpass noise stimuli.
In this work, the influence of both characteristics of the lens and misalignment of the incident beams on roughness measurement is presented. To investigate how the focal length and diameter affect the degree of correlation between the speckle patterns, a set of experiments with different lenses is performed. On the other hand, the roughness when the beams separated by an amount are non-coincident at the same point on the sample is measured. To conclude the study, the uncertainty of the method is calculated.
The form, waviness and roughness components of a measured profile are separated by means of digital filters. The aim of analysis was to develop an algorithm for one-dimensional filtering of profiles using approximation by means of B-splines. The theory of B-spline functions introduced by Schoenberg and extended by Unser et al. was used. Unlike the spline filter proposed by Krystek, which is described in ISO standards, the algorithm does not take into account the bending energy of a filtered profile in the functional whose minimization is the principle of the filter. Appropriate smoothness of a filtered profile is achieved by selecting an appropriate distance between nodes of the spline function. In this paper, we determine the Fourier transforms of the filter impulse response at different impulse positions, with respect to the nodes. We show that the filter cutoff length is equal to half of the node-to-node distance. The inclination of the filter frequency characteristic in the transition band can be adjusted by selecting an appropriate degree of the B-spline function. The paper includes examples of separation of 2D roughness, as well as separation of form and waviness of roundness profiles.
The prediction of machined surface parameters is an important factor in machining centre development. There is a great need to elaborate a method for on-line surface roughness estimation [1-7]. Among various measurement techniques, optical methods are considered suitable for in-process measurement of machined surface roughness. These techniques are non-contact, fast, flexible and tree-dimensional in nature. The optical method suggested in this paper is based on the vision system created to acquire an image of the machined surface during the cutting process. The acquired image is analyzed to correlate its parameters with surface parameters. In the application of machined surface image analysis, the wavelet methods were introduced. A digital image of a machined surface was described using the one-dimensional Digital Wavelet Transform with the basic wavelet as Coiflet. The statistical description of wavelet components made it possible to develop the quality measure and correlate it with surface roughness [8-11]. For an estimation of surface roughness a neural network estimator was applied [12-16]. The estimator was built to work in a recurrent way. The current value of the Ra estimation and the measured change in surface image features were used for forecasting the surface roughness Ra parameter. The results of the analysis confirmed the usability of the application of the proposed method in systems for surface roughness monitoring.
In this paper, an experimental surface roughness analysis in milling of tungsten carbide using a monolithic torus cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool is presented. The tungsten carbide was received using direct laser deposition technology (DLD). The depth of cut (ap), feed per tooth (fz) and tool wear (VBc) influence on surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz) were investigated. The cutting forces and accelerations of vibrations were measured in order to estimate their quantitative influence on Ra and Rz parameters. The surface roughness analysis, from the point of view of milling dynamics was carried out. The dominative factor in the research was not feed per tooth fz (according to a theoretical model) but dynamical phenomena and feed per revolution f connected with them.
Surface roughness parameter prediction and evaluation are important factors in determining the satisfactory performance of machined surfaces in many fields. The recent trend towards the measurement and evaluation of surface roughness has led to renewed interest in the use of newly developed non-contact sensors. In the present work, an attempt has been made to measure the surface roughness parameter of different machined surfaces using a high sensitivity capacitive sensor. A capacitive response model is proposed to predict theoretical average capacitive surface roughness and compare it with the capacitive sensor measurement results. The measurements were carried out for 18 specimens using the proposed capacitive-sensor-based non-contact measurement setup. The results show that surface roughness values measured using a sensor well agree with the model output. For ground and milled surfaces, the correlation coefficients obtained are high, while for the surfaces generated by shaping, the correlation coefficient is low. It is observed that the sensor can effectively assess the fine and moderate rough-machined surfaces compared to rough surfaces generated by a shaping process. Furthermore, a linear regression model is proposed to predict the surface roughness from the measured average capacitive roughness. It can be further used in on-machine measurement, on-line monitoring and control of surface roughness in the machine tool environment.
Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) has been extensively used in aircraft turbine-engine components, aircraft structural components, aerospace fasteners, high performance automotive parts, marine applications, medical devices and sports equipment. However, wide-spread use of this alloy has limits because of difficulty to machine it. One of the major difficulties found during machining is development of poor quality of surface in the form of higher surface roughness. The present investigation has been concentrated on studying the effects of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on surface roughness of the product during turning of titanium alloy. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to collect data for surface roughness. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the cutting parameters. The model equation is also formulated to predict surface roughness. Optimal values of cutting parameters were determined through response surface methodology. A 100% desirability level in the turning process for economy was indicated by the optimized model. Also, the predicted values that were obtained through regression equation were found to be in close agreement to the experimental values.
This work depicts the effects of deep cryogenically treated high-speed steel on machining. In recent research, cryogenic treatment has been acknowledged for improving the life or performance of tool materials. Hence, tool materials such as the molybdenum-based high-speed tool steel are frequently used in the industry at present. Therefore, it is necessary to observe the tool performance in machining; the present research used medium carbon steel (AISI 1045) under dry turning based on the L9 orthogonal array. The effect of untreated and deep cryogenically treated tools on the turning of medium carbon steel is analyzed using the multi-input-multi-output fuzzy inference system with the Taguchi approach. The cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were the selected process parameters with an effect on surface roughness and the cutting tool edge temperature was also observed. The results reveal that surface roughness decreases and cutting tool edge temperature increases on increasing the cutting speed. This is followed by the feed rate and depth of cut. The deep cryogenically treated tool caused a reduction in surface roughness of about 11% while the cutting tool edge temperature reduction was about 23.76% higher than for an untreated tool. It was thus proved that the deep cryogenically treated tool achieved better performance on selected levels of the turning parameters.
3D printing is a technology with possibilities related to the production of elements of any geometry, directly from a digital project. Elements made of plastic are metalized to give new properties such as conductivity or corrosion resistance. In this work, experimental work related to the electroless deposition of metallic coatings on plastics was carried out. For this purpose, the copper and nickel coatings were catalytically deposited on elements printed using hard-lightened resin. The effect of the metallization time on the properties of copper and nickel coatings was determined. In addition, the process of deposition metals in the magnetic field was analyzed with different direction of magnetic field to the surface of the samples. The coatings were analyzed by XRF, XRD method and morphology of surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The influence of the refractory coating which is a mixture of silica flour and kaolin on the surface roughness of the plate castings produced using evaporative patterns had been considered in this work. The kaolin was used as a binder and ratio method was employed to form basis for the factorial design of experiment which led to nine runs of experiments. Methyl alcohol at 99% concentration was used as the carrier for the transfer of the coating to the surface of the patterns. Pouring temperature was observed as a process parameter alongside the mix ratios of the coating. Attempts were made to characterize the refractory coating by using two methods; differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction. Attempt was also made to characterize the casting material. Gating system design was done for the plate casting to determine the correct proportions of the gating parameters in order to construct the gating system properly to avoid turbulence during pouring of liquid metal. A digital profilometer was used to take the measurements of the surface roughness. It was observed that the mix ratio 90% silica flour-10% kaolin produced the lowest value of the surface roughness of the plate castings and had the lowest material loss in the DTA test. The pouring temperature of 650o C produced best casting.
The paper presents the results of investigations of the growth of protective coating on the surface of ductile iron casting during the hot-dip galvanizing treatment. Ductile iron of the EN-GJS-600-3 grade was melted and two moulds made by different technologies were poured to obtain castings with different surface roughness parameters. After the determination of surface roughness, the hot-dip galvanizing treatment was carried out. Based on the results of investigations, the effect of casting surface roughness on the kinetics of the zinc coating growth was evaluated. It was found that surface roughness exerts an important effect on the thickness of produced zinc coating
Industrial applications require functional surfaces with a strictly defined micro-texture. Therefore engineered surfaces need to undergo a wide range of finishing processes. One of them is the belt grinding process, which changes the surface topography on a range of roughness and micro-roughness scales. The article describes the use of machined surface images in the monitoring process of micro-smoothing. Machined surface images were applied in the estimation of machined surface quality. The images were decomposed using two-dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform. The approximation component was analyzed and described by the features representing the geometric parameters of image objects. Determined values of image features were used to create the model of the process and estimation of appropriate time of micro-smoothing.
This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.
This study proposes a surface profile and roughness measurement system for a fibre-optic interconnect based on optical interferometry. On the principle of Fizeau interferometer, an interference fringe is formed on the fibre end-face of the fibre-optic interconnect, and the fringe pattern is analysed using the Fast Fourier transform method to reconstruct the surface profile. However, as the obtained surface profile contains some amount of tilt, a rule for estimating this tilt value is developed in this paper. The actual fibre end-face surface profile is obtained by subtracting the estimated tilt amount from the surface profile, as calculated by the Fast Fourier transform method, and the corresponding surface roughness can be determined. The proposed system is characterized by non-contact measurement, and the sample is not coated with a reflector during measurement. According to the experimental results, the difference between the roughness measurement result of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the measurement result of this system is less than 3 nm.
The paper presents examinations of the surface of base concrete with a 3D scanner. Two base concrete surfaces, differently prepared, were examined, together with two measurement strategies: simple and fast 3D scanning and partial scanning in selected areas corresponding to the device measurement space. In order to complete the analysis of a concrete surface topography an original Matlab-based program TAS (Topography Analysis and Simulation) was developed for both 2D and 3D surface analyses. It enables data processing, calculation of parameters, data visualization and digital filtration.
The topic of incompressible fluid flow in rough channels is of practical interest in many diverse applications. It also forms the basis of our understanding of fluid-wall interactions, turbulent eddy generation, and their effect on the frictional pressure losses. Although this topic is also of fundamental interest, the work in this area is entirely guided by the experimental work of earlier investigators . The works by Nikuradse  and Colebrook  constitute a major milestone from which useful empirical models are derived. As we approach the microscale, Nikuradses experimental work again is brought to focus, perhaps this time to gain an insight into the mechanisms affecting fluid-wall interaction in rough channels. In this paper, Nikuradses work is revisited in light of the recent experimental work on roughness effects in microscale flow geometries.
The work presented here, concentrates on experimental surface roughness analysis in the milling of hardened steel using a monolithic torus mill. Machined surface roughness with respect to milling process dynamics has been investigated. The surface roughness model including cutter displacements has been developed. Cutting forces and cutter displacements (vibrations) were measured in order to estimate their quantitative influence on Ra and Rz parameters. The cutter displacements were measured online using a scanning 3D laser vibrometer. The influence of cutting speed vc on surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz) was also studied. The research revealed that real surface roughness parameters are significantly higher than those calculated on the basis of a kinematic-geometric basic model, and their values are strongly dependent on dynamic cutter displacements.
The paper presents a spectral formulation of surface profile irregularity in a wideband frequency range for roughness, waviness and shape components along the measured length. A unique distribution of roughness and waviness components is proposed, according to the nature of their origination in the course of machining with tools of defined cutting edge, as distinct from standard filtration in measurements of surface irregularities. Differences resulting from both formulations are outlined as well as the method of determining the frequency of component separation for surface roughness and waviness.
Glacially abraded basaltic rock surfaces found within a Little Ice Age (LIA) foreland of Skálafellsjökull (SE Iceland) were studied at eight sites of different age applying different weathering indices. They include surface micro−roughness parameters measured with the Handysurf E35−B electronic profilometer – a new tool in geomorphology, Schmidt hammer rebound (R−values) and weathering rind thickness. Values of these indices obtained from study sites exposed to subaerial weathering for more than ca. 80 years are significantly different than those from younger moraines closer to the glacier snout. Despite a wide scatter of readings within each study site, there is a significant correlation between the ages and the values of the indices. It is concluded that the micro−roughness parameters provided by the Handysurf E35−B profilometer, Schmidt hammer R−values and weathering rind thickness are robust indices of rock surface deterioration rate in short time−scales. There is mounting evidence that rock surface undergoes relatively rapid weathering during first decades since deglaciation.
In this paper, the basic cutting characteristics such as cutting forces, cutting power and its distribution, specific cutting energies were determined taking into account variable tool corner radius ranging from 400 to 1200 μm and constant cutting parameters typical for hard turning of a hardened 41Cr4 alloy steel of 55 ± 1 HRC hardness. Finish turning operations were performed using chamfered CBN tools. Moreover, selected roughness profiles produced for different tool corner radius were compared and appropriate surface roughness parameters were measured. The measured values of Ra and Rz roughness parameters are compared with their theoretical values and relevant material distribution curves and bearing parameters are presented.
In the present work, the performance of multilayer coated carbide tool was investigated considering the effect of cutting parameters during turning of 34CrMo4 Low alloy steel. It has high strength and creep strength, and good impact tenacity at low temperature. It can work at –110°C to 500°C. And EN 10083-1 34CrMo4 owns high static strength, impact tenacity, fatigue resistance, and hardenability; without overheating tendencies. The objective functions were selected in relation to the parameters of the cutting process: surface roughness criteria. The correlations between the cutting parameters and performance measures, like surface roughness, were established by multiple linear regression models. Highly significant parameters were determined by performing an Analysis of variance (ANOVA). During the experiments flank wear, cutting force and surface roughness value were measured throughout the tool life. The results have been compared with dry and wet-cooled turning. Analysis of variance factors of design and their interactions were studied for their significance. Finally, a model using multiple regression analysis between cutting speed, fee rate and depth of cut with the tool life was established.
Aluminum alloys are widely used today in plastic injection molds in the automotive and aerospace industries due to their high strength and weight ratio, good corrosion and fatigue resistance as well as high feed rates. The 5754 aluminum alloy has high corrosion resistance and a structure suitable for cold forming. In this study, an AA 5754-H111 tempered aluminum alloy with the dimensions of 80×80×30 mm was used, and some of the materials were cryogenically heat treated. For the milling operations, ϕ12 mm diameter 76 mm height uncoated as well as TiCN and TiAlN coated end mills were used. Different levels of cutting depth (1.25, 2.0, 2.5 mm), cutting speed (50, 80, 100 m/ min), feed rate (265, 425, 530 m/ min) and machining pattern (concentric, back and forth and inward helical) were used. The number of experiments was reduced from 486 to 54 using the Taguchi L54 orthogonal array. The values obtained at the end of the experiments were evaluated using the signal-to-noise ratio, ANOVA, three-dimensional graphs and the regression method. Based on the result of the verification experiments, the processing accuracy for surface roughness was improved from 3.20 μm to 0.90 μm, with performance increase of 71.88%.