The present study aimed to test how common workaholism is and which groups are most targeted in the workplace among Jordanian employees. Additionally, the roles of positive and negative perfectionism in workaholism were investigated. The sample consisted of 686 employees. All of them completed the study instruments. The results showed that the mean of workaholism was around the mean of the cut -off. Additionally, multivariate tests showed that the results of post hoc differences for positive perfectionism were in favor of males, subordinates, those with a bachelor’s degree, those with less than 5 years of experience, and those aged less than 30 years. Furthermore, the differences for negative perfectionism were in favor of those with a bachelor’s degree and subordinates. For workaholism, the differences were in favor of subordinates, public sector employees, married persons, and those with a diploma degree. Finally, the results of hierarchical regression analysis found that positive and negative perfectionism and some demographic variables predicted 12.9% of the variability in workaholism, and the typical hierarchical regression model included positive and negative perfectionism without other demographic variables.
The objective of this research is to investigate the perception of owner – managers and their employees regarding entrepreneurial leadership. To develop the research, two questions are raised related to the similarities or differences of the perceptions of both groups with what is established in the literature and between the self – evaluation of the owner – managers and their employees on whether the former perform as an entrepreneurial leader. As a research method, both groups are asked to perform, first individual evaluations and then to match certain behaviours and the levels at which they should appear at certain levels of entrepreneurial leadership capacity. The data gathered during the investigation were processed using the Categorical Principal Components Analysis and revealed the similarities and differences between the perceptions of the owner-managers and their employees on entrepreneurial leadership. In spite of not finding significant differences between what is established in the literature and among the perceptions of the groups under study, interesting nuances stand out that, if not identified and understood, could have a negative effect on the performance of SMEs. The results of the research demonstrated the importance of the approach of behaviour and perception in the study of entrepreneurial leadership.