Henri Bergson as well as Gaston Milhaud undertake a radical critique of the conception of radical determinism because they both think that mind is able to act in a free and creative manner. In the article, I examine to what degree their arguments, aimed to prove this autonomy, converge. I inquire whether their endorsement of freedom of the mental acts led the two philosophers to the same conclusions regarding the cognitive extent of the intellect and therefore the parallel description of the status of scientific cognition.
Finding the most critical contingencies in a power system is a difficult task as multiple evaluations of load and generation scenarios are needed. This paper presents a mathematical formulation for selecting, ranking, and grouping the most critical N-1 network contingencies, based on the calculation of a Power Constraint Index (PCI) obtained from the Outage Transfer Distribution Factors (OTDF). The results show that the PCI is only affected by the impedance parameter of the transmission network, the topology, and the location of all generators. Other methods, such as the Performance Index (PI) and the Overload Index (OL) are affected by the power generation and demand variations. The proposed mathematical formulation can be useful to accelerate the calculation of other methods that evaluate contingencies in power system planning and operation. Furthermore, the fast calculation of indices makes it suitable for online evaluation and classification of multiple events considering the current topology. The results showed that the proposed al- gorithm easily selected and ranked the expected contingencies, with the highest values of the index corresponding to the most critical events. In the filtering process, the computa- tional calculation time improved without losing the robustness of the results.
The paper presents methods of determining the location of cost buffers and corresponding contingency costs in the CPM schedule based on its work breakdown structure. Application of correctly located cost buffers with appropriately established reserve costs is justified by the common overrunning of scheduled costs in construction projects. Interpolated cost buffers (CB) as separate tasks have been combined with relevant summary tasks by the starttostart (SS) relationship, whereas the time of their execution has been dynamically connected with the time of accomplishment of particular summary tasks using the “paste connection” option. Besides cost buffers linked with the group of tasks assigned to summary tasks, a definition of the cost buffer for the entire project (PCB) has been proposed, i.e. as one initial task of the entire project. Contingency costs corresponding to these buffers, depending on the data that the planner has at his disposal, can be determined using different methods, but always depend on the costs of all tasks protected by each buffer. The paper presents an exemplary schedule for a facility and the method of determining locations and cost for buffers CB and PCB, as well as their influence on the course of the curve illustrating the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS). The proposed solution has been adjusted and presented with consideration of the possibilities created by the scheduling software MS Project, though its general assumptions may be implemented with application of other similar specialist tools.
In this paper voltage stability is analysed based not only on the voltage deviations from the nominal values but also on the number of limit violating buses and severity of voltage limit violations. The expression of the actual state of the system as a numerical index like severity, aids the system operator in taking better security related decisions at control centres both during a period of contingency and also at a highly stressed operating condition. In contrary to conventional N – 1 contingency analysis, Northern Electric Reliability Council (NERC) recommends N – 2 line contingency analysis. The decision of the system operator to overcome the present contingency state of the system must blend harmoniously with the stability of the system. Hence the work presents a novel N – 2 contingency analysis based on the continuous severity function of the system. The study is performed on 4005 possible combinations of N – 2 contingency states for the practical Indian Utility 62 bus system. Static VAr Compensator is used to improve voltage profile during line contingencies. A multi- objective optimization with the objective of minimizing the voltage deviation and also the number of limit violating bus with optimal location and optimal sizing of SVC is achieved by Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm.
This article, focused principally on the exploration of contingency, the body and disgust in Michał Witkowski’s novel Margot, is also a polemic and a vindication of the book against the barrage of criticism it received from its reviewers. Most of them decided that Margot was a novel about nothing, a haphazard mix of sundry discourses devoid of any linear structure. In fact, several critics blamed the author of giving away both the narrative structure and the plot to capricious contingency. The article takes a fi rm stance against such charges and argues that contingency does not need to be seen as a fault at all. It lies at the heart of the novel and determines the actions of characters, but it plays as important a role in people’s lives outside fi ction. Analysing the ups and down of the main characters (Margot and Wadek Mandarynka), the article explains the function of emotions, the body, the characters’ language and their ideas of sacrum in the legitimization of contingency. A special role in this mechanism is played by disgust. Reactions of disgust are always contingent, or, as Julia Kristeva puts it the abject has the power to terrorize the subject to such extent that he can do nothing but to succumb to contingency. In working out the idea of the contingency of selfhood, the article also draws on Richard Rorty’s approach, and in particular his concept of ironism. The latter is used to classify the main character of Witkowski’s book as a consummate ironist, i.e. a person who tests different languages in which the world can be described in order to pursue his carnal desires. Finally, the article argues that in his novel Witkowski not only brings to light the fortuitous character of the postmodern identity but also creates a heterogeneous language to express it.