This paper describes the arithmetic blocks based on Montgomery Multiplier (MM), which reduces complexity, gives lower power dissipation and higher operating frequency. The main objective in designing these arithmetic blocks is to use modified full adder structure and carry save adder structure that can be implemented in algorithm based MM circuit. The conventional full adder design acts as a benchmark for comparison, the second is the modified Boolean equation for full adder and third design is the design of full adder consisting of two XOR gate and a 2-to-1 Multiplexer. Besides Universal gates such as NOR gate and NAND gate, full adder circuits are used to further improve the speed of the circuit. The MM circuit is evaluated based on different parameters such as operating frequency, power dissipation and area of occupancy in FPGA board. The schematic designs of the arithmetic components along with the MM architecture are constructed using Quartus II tool, while the simulation is done using Model sim for verification of circuit functionality which has shown improvement on the full adder design with two XOR gate and one 2-to-1 Multiplexer implementation in terms of power dissipation, operating frequency and area.
The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model capable of predicting the grain density in the Mg-based matrix phase of an AZ91/SiC composite, as a function of the total mass fraction of the embedded SiC particles. Based on earlier work in a range of alloy systems, we assume an exponential relationship between the grain density and the maximum supercooling during solidification. Analysis of data from cast samples with different thicknesses, and mass fractions of added SiCp, permits conclusions to be drawn on the role of SiCp in increasing grain density. By fitting the data, an empirical nucleation law is derived that can be used in a micro model. Numerical simulation based on the model can predict the grain density of magnesium alloys containing SiC particles, using the mass fraction of the particles as inputs. These predictions are compared with measured data.
An economical alternative for the steel industry which uses a separate ferrosilicon and aluminum for the deoxidization of steel is a complex deoxidizer in the form of FeSiAl alloys. The effectiveness of complex deoxidizers is higher and they have a positive effect on quality improvement and also for mechanical properties of the finished steel. It is associated with a smaller number of non-metallic inclusions and a more favorable its distribution in the structure of steel. Noteworthy are the waste from the mining industry simultaneously contains SiO2 and Al2O3 oxides with a few of dopants in the form of CaO, MgO, FeO, TiO2 oxides. These wastes are present in large quantities and can be a cheap raw material for obtaining complex FeSiAl ferroalloys by an electrothermal method. “Poor” hard coal grades which so far did not apply as a reducing agent in the ferroalloy industry because of the high ash content can also be a raw material for the electrothermal FeSiAl process. The electrothermal FeSiAl melting process is similar to the ferrosilicon process in the submerged arc furnace. For this reason, a model based on Gibbs’ free enthalpy minimization algorithm was used to analyze the simultaneous reduction of SiO2 and Al2O3 oxides, which was originally elaborated for the ferrosilicon smelting process. This is a system of two closed reactors: the upper one with the lower temperature and the lower one with the higher temperature. Between the reaction system and the environment, and between the reactors inside the system, there is a cyclical mass transfer in moments when the state of equilibrium is reached in the reactors. Based on the model, the basic parameters of the electrothermal reduction process of SiO2 and Al2O3 oxides were determined and a comparative analysis was made towards the ferrosilicon process.
The paper concerns the problem of discontinuity in high pressure die castings (HPDC). The compactness of their structure is not perfect, as it is sometimes believed. The discontinuities present in these castings are the porosity as follow: shrinkage and gas (hydrogen and gas-air occlusions) origin. The mixed gas and shrinkage nature of porosity makes it difficult to identify and indicate the dominant source. The selected parameters of metallurgical quality of AlSi9Cu3 alloy before and after refining and the gravity castings samples (as DI - density index method), were tested and evaluated. This alloy was served to cast the test casting by HPDC method. The penetrating testing (PT) and metallographic study of both kinds of castings were realized. The application of the NF&S simulation system allowed virtually to indicate the porosity zones at risk of a particular type in gravity and high-pressure-die-castings. The comparing of these results with the experiment allowed to conclude about NF&S models validation. The validity of hypotheses concerning the mechanisms of formation and development of porosity in HPDC casting were also analyzed.