The objective of the presented paper is to investigate the performance of concrete containing volcanic scoria as cement replacement after 7, 28, 90, and 180 days curing. Five performance indicators have been studied. Compressive strength, water permeability, porosity, chloride penetrability, and reinforcement corrosion resistance have all been evaluated. Concrete specimens were produced with replacement levels ranging from 10 to 35%. Test results revealed that curing time had a large influence on all the examined performance indicators of scoria-based concrete. Water permeability, porosity, and chloride penetrability of scoria-based concrete mixes were much lower than that of plain concrete. Concretes produced with scoria-based binders also decelerated rebar corrosion, particularly after longer curing times. Furthermore, an estimation equation has been developed by the authors to predict the studied performance indicators, focusing on the curing time and the replacement level of volcanic scoria. SEM/EDX analysis has been reported as well.
The present study examines some durability aspects of ambient cured bottom ash geopolymer concrete (BA GPC) due to accelerated corrosion, sorptivity, and water absorption. The bottom ash geopolymer concrete was prepared with sodium based alkaline activators under ambient curing temperatures. The sodium hydroxide used concentration was 8M. The performance of BA GPC was compared with conventional concrete. The test results indicate that BA GPC developes a strong passive layer against chloride ion diffusion and provides better protection against corrosion. Both the initial and final rates of water absorption of BA GPC were about two times less than those of conventional concrete. The BA GPC significantly enhanced performance over equivalent grade conventional concrete (CC).
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is one of the most rapidly advancing techniques. This method is capable of non-contact and non-destructive investigation of the inner structure of a broad range of materials. Compared with other methods which belong to the NDE/NDT group (Non-Destructive Evaluation/Non-Destructive Testing methods), OCT is capable of a broad range of scattering material structure visualization. Such a non-invasive and versatile method is very demanded by the industry. The authors applied the OCT method to examine the corrosion process in metal samples coated by polymer films. The main aim of the research was the evaluation of the anti-corrosion protective coatings using the OCT method. The tested samples were exposed to a harsh environment. The OCT measurements have been taken at different stages of the samples degradation. The research and tests results have been presented, as well as a brief discussion has been carried out.
This paper deals with the evaluation of the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloys alloyed with the different amount of antimony. Specifically it goes about the alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 which is antimony alloyed in the concentrations 0; 0,001; 0,005; 0,01 a 0,05 wt. % of antimony. The introduction of the paper is dedicated to the theory of the aluminium alloys corrosion resistance, testing and evaluation of the corrosion resistance. The influence of the antimony to the Al-Si alloys properties is described further in the introduction. The experimental part describes the experimental samples which were prepared for the experiment and further they were exposed to the loading in the atmospheric conditions for a period of the 3 months. The experimental samples were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The results of the experiment were documented and the conclusions in terms of the antimony impact to the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy were concluded. There was compared the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy antimony alloyed (with the different antimony content) with the results of the Al-Si alloy without the alloying after the corrosion load in the atmospheric conditions in the experiment.
In the paper the results and analysis of corrosion tests were presented for low-alloyed cast steel in as-cast state and after heat treatment operations. Such alloys are applied for heavy loaded parts manufacturing, especially for mining industry. The corrosion test were performed in conditions of high salinity, similar to those occurring during the coal mining. The results have shown, that small changes in chemical composition and the heat treatment influence significantly the corrosion behaviour of studied low-alloyed cast steels.
This paper presents an analysis of the corrosion hazard in the burner belt area of waterwalls in pulverised fuel (PF) boilers that results from low-NOx combustion. Temperature distributions along the waterwall tubes in subcritical (denoted as SUB) and supercritical (SUP) boilers were calculated and compared. Two hypothetical distributions of CO concentrations were assumed in the near-wall layer of the flue gas in the boiler furnace, and the kinetics of the waterwall corrosion were analysed as a function of the local temperature of the tubes. The predicted rate of corrosion of the boiler furnace waterwalls in the supercritical boilers was compared with that of in the subcritical boilers.
The paper discusses the results of investigations of material, tribological and anti-corrosion properties of hybrid coatings of the Cr/CrN type, consisting of chromium and chromium nitride, formed on the surface of alloy tool steel by the Arc-PVD method. Investigations of the morphology and microstructure of hybrid coatings, as well as of their phase composition were carried out. The studies on mechanical properties included tests on hardness and Young’s modulus using the nanoindentation method. Tests on adhesion were conducted using the scratch-test method. Tribological properties of the obtained coatings were evaluated by the pin-on-disc method. Resistance to corrosion was determined by electrochemical methods. It was shown that hybrid coatings of the Cr/CrN type are characterized by good adhesion to the substrate and very good tribological properties, as well as by very good resistance to corrosion in a solution containing chlorine ions.
The article describes the impact of germanium on the course of surface phenomena in casting alloys of silver used in gold smithing. The aim of this works is to describe the assessment of resulting alloys, comparing the area of raw castings and the impact of the addition content of the alloy on the hardness of the samples. The evaluation also was subject to corrosion resistance of giving a comparison of their use in relations to traditional silver alloys.
In this article the structural and mechanical properties of grain refinement of Cu-Sn alloys with tin content of 10%, 15% and 20% using the KOBO method have been presented. The direct extrusion by KOBO (name from the combination of the first two letters of the names of its inventors – A. Korbel and W. Bochniak) method employs, during the course of the whole process, a phenomenon of permanent change of strain travel, realized by a periodical, two-sided, plastic metal torsion. Moreover the aim of this work was to study corrosion resistance. The microstructure investigations were performed using an optical microscope Olimpus GX71, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The mechanical properties were determined with INSTRON 4505/5500 machine. Corrosion tests were performed using «Autolab» set – potentiostat/galvanostat from EcoChemie B.V. with GPES software ver. 4.9. The obtained results showed possibility of KOBO deformation of Cu-Sn casting alloys. KOBO processing contributed to the refinement of grains and improved mechanical properties of the alloys. The addition of tin significantly improved the hardness. Meanwhile, with the increase of tin content the tensile strength and yield strength of alloys decrease gradually. Ductility is controlled by eutectoid composition and especially δ phase, because they initiate nucleation of void at the particle/matrix interface. No significant differences in the corrosion resistance between cast and KOBO processed materials were found.
The Ti15Mo alloy has been studied towards long-term corrosion performance in saline solution at 37°C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The physical and chemical characterization of the material were also investigated. The as-received Ti15Mo alloy exhibits a single β-phase structure. The thickness of single-layer structured oxide presented on its surface is ~4 nm. Impedance measurements revealed that the Ti15Mo alloy is characterized by spontaneous passivation in the solution containing chloride ions and formation of a double-layer structured oxide composed of a dense interlayer being the barrier layer against corrosion and porous outer layer. The thickness of this oxide layer, estimated based on the impedance data increases up to ~6 nm during 78 days of exposure. The observed fall in value of the log|Z|f = 0.01 Hz indicates a decrease in pitting corrosion resistance of Ti15Mo alloy in saline solution along with the immersion time. The detailed EIS study on the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion process and the capacitive behavior of the Ti15Mo electrode | passive layer | saline solution system was based on the concept of equivalent electrical circuit with respect to the physical meaning of the applied circuit elements. Potentiodynamic studies up to 9 V vs. SCE and SEM analysis show no presence of pitting corrosion what indicates that the Ti15Mo alloy is promising biomaterial to long-term medical applications.
The aim of this paper was to determine the effect of heat treatment for the corrosion resistance of the ZnAl40Ti2Cu alloy under “acid rain” conditions. ZnAl40TiCu alloy after supersaturation and after supersaturation and aging was studied. Potentiodynamic studies, potentiostatic studies and studies on structure of the alloy top layer of samples after corrosion tests were carried out. These investigations indicated a significant influence of heat treatment on corrosion resistance of the ZnAl40Ti2Cu alloy. The highest increase in corrosion resistance comparing to the alloy in the as-cast condition may be obtained by supersaturation. A significant influence of the aging temperature and time on corrosion resistance was proved.
The paper presents the research results of the solenoid housing made of the Zn4Al1Cu alloy that was destroyed as a result of corrosion. Surface of the tested part showed macroscopically the features typical for white corrosion, and the resulting corrosion changes led to a disturbance of the alloy cohesion. The research performed have shown that the tested solenoid valve has intergranular corrosion as a reaction of the environment containing road salt. The corrosion was initiated in the areas of the alfa phase existence appearing in the eutectic areas which propagated over dendritic areas of the alloy. Initiation of the corrosion followed as a result of the galvanic effect of the alfa phase reach in aluminium showing higher electrochemical potential, in contact with the eta phase reach in zinc. The impact of the phase reach in lead present in the microstructure on the corrosion processes run was not found.
The paper deals with the impact of co-firing biomass with coal in boilers on the dew point of the flue gas. Co-firing of biomass may have twofold implications on corrosion and fouling, which are the processes that determine the lowest acceptable flue gas outlet temperature and as a result, boiler efficiency. Both phenomena may be reduced by co-firing of usually low sulphur biomasses or enhanced due to increased moisture content of biomass leading to increased water dew point. The present study concerns the problem of low-temperature corrosion in utility boilers. The paper gives (in the form of diagrams and equations) a relationship between water dew point and moisture content of fuel mixture when co-firing coal and various biomasses. The regression analysis shows that despite significant differences in the characteristics of coals and these of additional fuels, which are planned for co-firing in large-scale power boilers, the water dew point can be described by a function given with the accuracy, which shall be satisfactory for engineering purposes. The discussion of the properties of biofuels indicates that the acid dew point surplus over the water dew point (Δtr = tr - twr) is not likely to exceed 10 K when co-firing biomass. The concluding remarks give recommendations for the appropriate operation of boilers in order to reduce risks associated with biomass co-combustion.
The paper presents the effect of ZrO2 layer deposition by the ALD process on the physicochemical properties of cobalt-based alloys (Realloy C and EOS CoCr SP2) intended for application in prosthetic dentistry. The paper shows the results of the surface roughness measurements made by the AFM method as well as the wettability and free surface energy measurements. Additionally,potentiodynamic tests of pitting corrosion resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a solution of artificial saliva were carried out. Tests were carried out on the samples in the initial state and after surface modification with the ZrO2 layer. Based on these results, the usefulness (e.g. enhancement of corrosion resistance and biocompatibility) of the proposed ZrO2 layer on the cobalt alloys was assessed.
The influence of the electrode geometry on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of Co-Mo nano-crystalline coatings elaborated by electrodeposition is studied. The corrosion behaviour was determined in the Ringer’s solution at 25°C. Electrodeposition mechanisms are also discussed as a function of the electrode geometry. The electrode geometry was found to affect the growth rate and, under certain conditions, the microstructure (existence of channels and pores). It does not have influence on the corrosion behaviour.
The influence on the corrosion behaviour of Co-Mo nano-crystalline coatings of dissolved oxygen is studied in the Ringer’s solution and artificial saliva at 25°C. This was done by means of potentiodynamic tests and surface observations. It was shown that dissolved oxygen has no influence on passivity, oxidation of the coating and selective dissolution of cobalt. By contrast, dissolved oxygen affects corrosion. General corrosion was observed in the Ringer’s solution whereas pitting corrosion was found in artificial saliva.
The paper presents the results of studies of hybrid composite layers Ni/Al2O3/Cgraphite produced by the electrodeposition method. Three variants of hybrid composite layers were prepared in electrolyte solutions with the same amounts of each dispersion phases which were equal to 0.25; 0.50 and 0.75 g/dm3. The structure of Ni/Al2O3/Cgraphite layers as well as the Al2O3 and graphite powders, which were used as dispersion phases was investigated. The results of morphology and surface topography of produced layers are presented. The modulus of elasticity and microhardness of the material of produced layers were determined by DSI method. Tribological and corrosion resistance tests of produced layers were carried out. Realized studies have shown that the material of the produced layers is characterized by a nanocrystalline structure. Incorporation of dispersion phases into the nickiel matrix increases the degree of surface development of layers. Ni/Al2O3/Cgraphite layers are characterized by high hardness and abrasion resistance by friction, furthermore, they provide good corrosion protection for the substrate material.
In the present study, the corrosion behaviour of A356 (Al-7Si-0.3Mg) alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution has been evaluated using cyclic/potentiodynamic polarization tests. The alloy was provided in the unmodified form and it was then modified with AlTi5B1 for grain refinement and with AlSr15 for Si modifications. These modifications yield to better mechanical properties. Tensile tests were performed. In addition, bifilm index and SDAS values were calculated and microstructure of the samples was investigated. As a result of the corrosion test, the Ecorr values for all conditions were determined approximately equal, and the samples were pitted rapidly. The degassing of the melt decreased the bifilm index (i.e. higher melt quality) and thereby the corrosion resistance was increased. The lowest corrosion rate was founded at degassing and as-received condition (3.9x10-3 mm/year). However, additive elements do not show the effect which degassing process shows.
The article presents results of pitting corrosion studies of selected silicon cast irons. The range of studies included low, medium and high silicon cast iron. The amount of alloying addition (Si) in examined cast irons was between 5 to 25 %. Experimental melts of silicon cast irons [1-3] were conducted in Department of Foundry of Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice and pitting corrosion resistance tests were performed in Faculty of Biomedical Engineering in Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering of Silesian University of Technology in Zabrze. In tests of corrosion resistance the potentiostat VoltaLab PGP201 was used. Results obtained in those research complement the knowledge about the corrosion resistance of iron alloys with carbon containing Si alloying addition above 17 % [4-6]. Obtained results were supplemented with metallographic examinations using scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of chemical composition for cast irons using Leco spectrometer was done and the content of alloying element (silicon) was also determined using the gravimetric method in the laboratory of the Institute of Welding in Gliwice. The compounds of microstructure were identify by X-ray diffraction.
Within the presented research, effect of annealing on nature of corrosion damages of medium-nickel austenitic nodular cast iron castings, containing 5.5% to 10.3% Ni, was determined. Concentration of nickel, lower than in the Ni-Resist cast iron, was compensated with additions of other austenite-stabilising elements (manganese and copper). In consequence, raw castings with austenitic matrix structure and gravimetrically measured corrosion resistance increasing along with nickel equivalent value EquNi were obtained. Annealing of raw castings, aimed at obtaining nearly equilibrium structures, led to partial austenite-to-martensite transformation in the alloys with EquNi value of ca. 16%. However, corrosion resistance of the annealed alloys did not decrease in comparison to raw castings. Annealing of castings with EquNi value above 18% did not cause any structural changes, but resulted in higher corrosion resistance demonstrated by smaller depth of corrosion pits.
The work presents the results of the studies of Co-Cr-Mo casting alloys used in the production of frame casts of removable dentures, crowns and bridges in dental prosthetics. The studies were performed on four Co-Cr-Mo alloys of different contents of Mo, W and other additives. Electrochemical tests were performed, which aimed at examining the corrosion resistance of the alloys and observing the alloy structure after chronoamperometric tests with the potential in the area of the occurrence of the passive layer breakpoint. The alloy microstructure images after chronoamperometric tests show the presence of non-uniformly distributed general corrosion. Moreover, a project of cobalt alloy casting was elaborated using a ceramic mold casting. Additionally, analysis of the obtained microstructure was performed. The microstructure of the examined alloys was of the dendrite type. This microstructure was chemically inhomogeneous and consisted of an austenitic matrix formed by a solid cobalt solution and chromium in the core dendritic structure.
Air abrasion process is used for cleaning casting surface of prosthetic components, and to prepare the surface of these elements for the application of veneering items. Its side effect, however, is that abrasive particles are embedded in the treated surface, which can be up to 30% of the surface and it constitutes the side effect of this procedure. Such a significant participation of foreign material can not be indifferent to the properties of the surface. Embedded particles can be the place of stress concentration causing cracking of ceramics, and may deteriorate corrosion resistance by forming corrosive microlinks. In the latter cases, it would be advisable to remove elements embedded into the surface. The simplest method is chemical etching or electrochemical one. Nevertheless, these procedures should not significantly change the parameters of the surface. Among many possible reagents only a few fulfills all the above conditions. In addition, processing should not impair corrosion resistance of titanium, which is one of the most important factors determining its use as a prosthetic restoration in the mouth. The study presented results of corrosion resistance of titanium used to make prosthetic components by means of casting method, which were subjected to chemical processing designed to remove the embedded abrasive particles. The aim of the study was to investigate whether etching with selected reagents affects the corrosion resistance of titanium castings. For etching the following reagents were used: 30% HNO3 + 3% HF + H2O, HNO3+ HF+ glycerol (1:2:3), 4% HF in H2O2, 4% HF in H2O, with a control sandblasted sample, not subjected to etching. Tests demonstrated that the etching affected corrosion properties of test samples, in each case the reduction of the corrosion potential occurred - possibly due to the removal of particles of Al2O3 from the surface and activation of the surface. None of the samples underwent pitting corrosion as a result of polarization to 9 V. Values of the polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic characteristics indicated that the best corrosion resistance exhibited the samples after etching in a mixture of 4% solution of HF in H2O2. They showed very good passivation of the surface.
Among the copper based alloys, Cu-Al-X bronzes are commonly used as mold materials due to their superior physical and chemical properties. Mold materials suffer from both wear and corrosion, thus, it is necessary to know which one of the competitive phenomenon is dominant during the service conditions. In this study, tribo-corrosion behavior of CuAl10Ni5Fe4 and CuAl14Fe4Mn2Co alloys were studied and electrochemical measurements were carried out using three electrode system in 3.5 % NaCl solution in order to evaluate their corrosion resistance. In tribo-corrosion tests, alloys were tested against zirconia ball in 3.5 % NaCl solution, under 10N load with 0.04 m/s sliding speed during 300 and 600 m. The results indicate that (i) CuAl10Ni5Fe4 alloy is more resistant to NaCl solution compared to CuAl14Fe4Mn2Co alloy that has major galvanic cells within its matrix, (ii) although CuAl10Ni5Fe4 alloy has lower coefficient of friction value, it suffers from wear under dry sliding conditions, (iii) as the sliding distance increases, corrosion products on CuAl14Fe4Mn2Co surface increase at a higher rate compared to CuAl10Ni5Fe4 leading to a decrease in volume loss due to the lubricant effect of copper oxides.
This paper presents the results of Cr - Ni 18/9 austenitic cast steel modifications by mischmetal. The study was conducted on industrial melts. Cast steel was melted in an electric induction furnace with a capacity of 2000 kg and a basic lining crucible. .The mischmetal was introduced into the ladle during tapping of the cast steel from the furnace. The effectiveness of modification was examined with the carbon content of 0.1% and the presence of δ ferrite in the structure of cast steel stabilized with titanium. The changes in the structure of cast steel and their effect on mechanical properties and intergranular corrosion were studied. It was found that rare earth metals decrease the sulfur content in cast steel and above all, they cause a distinct change in morphology of the δ ferrite and non-metallic inclusions. These changes have improved mechanical properties. R02, Rm, and A5 and toughness increased significantly. There was a great increase of the resistance to intergranular corrosion in the Huey test. The study confirmed the high efficiency of cast steel modification by mischmetal in industrial environments. The final effect of modification depends on the form and manner of placing mischmetal into the liquid metal and the melting technology, ie the degree of deoxidation and desulfurization of the metal in the furnace.