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Abstract

The research was conducted at the Kwiatków site,1 in the Koło Basin (Central Poland). It included a fragment of a low terrace and the valley floor of the Warta river valley. The archaeological investigation documented over 100 wells that archaeological material indicates are associated with the Przeworsk culture. Geomorphological, lithological and geochemical studies were carried out at the archaeological sites and their surroundings. Selected for the presentation were two wells whose fillings were carefully tested and subjected to geochemical and lithological analyses. The wells showed a slightly different content of artifacts, as well as differences in their grain-size distributions, the structure of their filling deposits, and their geochemistry. This allows us to conclude that the two wells were used differently, but also probably about a different course for how each well was filled after the end of its operation.
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Abstract

This paper presents the Late Glacial stage of the development of the Białe Ługi peatland in the southern Holy Cross Mountains, based on a comprehensive palaeoenvironmental data. A complex analysis of palynology, Cladocera, sed imentology, geochemistry and 14C dating were used. Organic deposition was initiated during the Oldest Dryas. The sedimentary record of the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems reflects considerable difference between cooler (Oldest, Older and Younger Dryas) and warmer phases (Břlling and Allerřd). Periods of intensified interaction between aeolian processes and peatland are related to stages of disappearing vegetation and changes in aquatic invertebrate communities. We therefore suggest that peatlands were created as a result of local lithological-structural, tectonic, hydrogeological and morphological conditions, and the peatland development rate was largely influenced by changing climatic conditions, which determined local vegetation development, intensity of denudation processes and water level changes. The results validate significance of selection and use of several methods, as well as value of biogenic deposits from the Białe Ługi peatland as archives of past climate change in the Małopolska Upland. Relatively stable water conditions and uninter rupted biogenic sedimentation in the Late Glacial that were provided by the geological structure and relief suggest the studied peatland is a leading one in the region.
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