Life Sciences and Agriculture

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica


Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2020 | vol. 62 | No 1 |

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Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) is used as functional food and its nutritional and therapeutic properties are related to the high levels of organic and fatty acids, polyphenols, polysaccharides and cyclo-dopa amides. This study presents a strategy based on liquid chromatography – high resolution accurate mass spectrometry method (LC – HRAMS) and bioinformatic methods to analyze 33 purslane accessions originating from 11 floristic regions in Bulgaria together with 5 accessions of Greek provenance. Extracts were obtained by microwave extraction. Based on the LC-MS metabolic “fingerprints” of assayed samples, a purslane metabolic database was developed. LC-MS data were proceeded with Software application Compound Discover 2.0 (Thermo Fischer Sci., USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) combined with both descriptive and differential analyses were used to find marker metabolites to distinguish different geographical regions. The differential analysis of the Bulgarian and Greek samples allowed the identification of 50 marker metabolites. Based on accurate masses, retention times, fragmentation patterns in MS/MS, comparison with commercial standards and literature data, these secondary metabolites were identified after detailed analysis of Volcano-plots. For the first time, 29 compounds are reported. The identified compounds were used to perform a study of the biosynthetic pathways of purslane secondary metabolites using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) software platform. The statistical treatments identified marker compounds that can be used to distinguish the origin of accession set. Combining LC-MS data with multivariate statistical analysis was shown to be effective in studying the purslane metabolites, allowing for integration of chemistry with geographic origin.

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Authors and Affiliations

Vessela Balabanova
Iassen Hristov
Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova
Paulina Sugareva
Valentin Lozanov
Reneta Gevrenova
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The spontaneous diploidization rates in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) via in vitro androgenesis are too low for practical applications. In contrast, artificial doubling of chromosomes of the microspore has proven to be more successful and allows homozygous plants to be obtained in a short time. Here, we present the efficiency of diploidization of B. napus haploids using three different chromosome doubling methods.

Using the in vitro approach in microspores, the rate of chromosome doubling in 24 populations of androgenic plants ranged from 15.8% to 94.0%. An alternative in vivo method for the induction of chromosome doubling involves colchicine treatment of young haploid plants, and this yielded doubling rates ranging from 47.5% to 86.4% in 10 different plant populations. Another in vivo method of chromosome doubling is colchicine treatment of the excised young axillary shoots of haploid plants at the early flowering stage. The high efficiency of this method was confirmed in haploid plant populations from 11 genetically distinct donors in which the frequency of occurrence of diploids ranged from 53.3% to 100%. However, in this case, the time required for seed formation from doubled haploids increased by about 3–5 months. The availability of several methods of chromosome doubling at various stages of the androgenic process – from isolated microspores through to young plants and flowering plants – allows seeds to be obtained from nearly every selected individual haploid.

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Authors and Affiliations

Laurencja Szała
Katarzyna Sosnowska
Teresa Cegielska-Taras
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Since plant responses to selenium nanoparticles (nSe) had not been clarified, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of nSe (10 and 100 μM) on photosynthesis performance, ion homeostasis, antioxidant system, and phenylpropanoids in strawberry exposed to salt stress. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy analyses indicated that foliar-applied nSe can be taken up by leaves and trans-located to roots. Salinity led to an increase in Na concentration and reductions in Ca and K contents which were relieved by the nSe applications. Moreover, the nSe treatment at 10 μM alleviated the NaCl-induced lesion to PSII functioning, contributing to improvement in water-splitting complex (Fv/Fo) under salinity. The exposure to nSe at a concentration of 100 µM exhibited a moderate stress, determined by the increases in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation rate (membrane integrity index). The nSe10 treatment increased catalase activity and phenylpropanoid derivatives contents (salicylic acid, catechin, and caffeic acid) and decreased the content of oxidants under salinity condition. Consequently, nSe utilization at a suitable dose can be an effective method to alleviate signs of salt stress via improvements in photosynthesis, ion hemostasis, photosynthesis performance, salicylic acid (a vital signaling defensive hormone), and antioxidant machinery.

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Authors and Affiliations

Reza Soleymanzadeh
Alireza Iranbakhsh
Ghader Habibi
Zahra Oraghi Ardebili
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Rumex thyrsiflorus Fingerh. is mentioned as a European folk medicinal plant. This species has also been traditionally used as an edible plant in Eastern Europe because of its nutritional value. During the study, qualitative and quantitative sex-related differences of phenolic constituents in methanolic leaf extracts of R. thyrsiflorus were evaluated. The presence of the same substances (nine phenolic acids before, and six phenolic acids after acid hydrolysis, nine flavonoids, and a catechin) was estimated in both female and male specimens, using the HPLC-DAD method. A statistically significant higher content of eleven constituents in female plant extracts (acids: chlorogenic, p-coumaric, cryptochlorogenic, gallic, protocatechuic, neochlorogenic, vanillic; flavonoids: quercitrin, rhamnetin, rutoside; and catechin) was shown. This is the first report concerning the relation between the sex and the content of biologically active phenolic secondary metabolites in leaf extracts of R. thyrsiflorus. Female plants of R. thyrsiflorus could be useful for pharmaceutical purposes as a preferential source of bioactive phenolic acids, flavonoids and especially catechin.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Dziedzic
Agnieszka Szopa
Piotr Waligórski
Halina Ekiert
Halina Ślesak
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Habitat fragmentation is one of serious threats to biodiversity of nature in today's world. The present study of a typical steppe species Iris pumila L. (Iridaceae) has analyzed the impacts of geographical isolation and population size on genetic diversity and population structure in conditions of habitat fragmentation. The key indices of population genetic variability calculated from the ISSR markers data were on average as follows: Shannon diversity index (S) – 0.188; unbiased Nei’s gene diversity (He) – 0.123; and the average measure of Jaccard’s genetic distances between individuals within populations – 58.4%. Although the largest population had significantly higher values of S and He, the small and marginal populations also showed a comparable level of variation. Most of the genetic variation of I. pumila was distributed within the populations. A strong correlation was found between Nei’s genetic distances and geographic distances between the populations. According to the Bayesian analysis, genetic structure of the populations was highly homogeneous; however, the presence of admixed genotypes indicated the possibility of gene flow between the populations at present.

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Authors and Affiliations

Olena Bublyk
Igor Andreev
Ivan Parnikoza
Viktor Kunakh
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Dehydroabietic acid R=COOH (DHA), a naturally occuring diterpene resin acid, is an activator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under biotic stress. However, there had been no report on its functioning under salinity. In the present study, we determined the effects of DHA on salinity and its possible role as a signal transmitter in soybean (Glycine max L.) leaves under salinity (200 mM NaCl). Furthermore, physiological parameters, chlorophyll, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, superoxide (O2‾) and hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenge capacity, as well as antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POX, APX and GST) and GmWRKY-71 gene expressions were investigated in the treated plants at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. The obtained results showed that pretreatment of DHA caused (1) a reduction in salt-induced damage, (2) improvement in biomass yield, water status, chlorophyll and leaf area, (3) regulation of the proline level and relative electrolyte leakage, (4) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, (5) induction of SOD and APX enzyme activity at all the investigated periods, while POX only at 6 h, and thus alleviation of the oxidative damage. In addition, the changes in GmWRKY-71 gene expressions were remarkable in soybean under salinity. To sum up, these results showed that DHA can be used as a ROS inhibitor or a signal molecule in increasing salt tolerance in soybean under salinity.

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Authors and Affiliations

Eda Tasci
Burcu Seckin Dinler
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The genus Scutellaria L., Lamiaceae family, Scutellarioideae sub-family is known as the most important medicinal plant in the world. This research aimed to investigate the flavonoid content of seven Scutellaria species from the center, southwest, and west of Iran. Via thin layer and column chromatography, the flavonoid was extracted from leaves and then purified. To screen the flavonoid compositions, a chromatographic method was applied by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC/TQMS/MS). Fingerprint analysis was implemented so as to characterize a total of 73 chemical compounds, from which 71 compounds were flavonoids belonging to different classes. Flavone with 37 derivatives possessed major values. The most abundant flavonoid compounds were observed in S. multicaulis (23 compounds) and S. patonii (22 compounds). Flavonoid composition, including apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin, and hydroxyl- flavones represented remarkable derivatives. A total of 45 flavonoids, one tannin and one anthraquinone compound, were observed to be primarily separated and identified for Scutellaria species. Moreover, six categorized chemical groups were identified in this genus and proposed as chemical barcodes. The specific chemical groups strongly provided the boundaries of Scutellaria species, the pharmacological value enhancement, breeding programs, and comprehensive documents of the species. According to the results, LC/TQMS/MS was proven a dominant method regarding genus Scutellaria.

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Authors and Affiliations

Farzaneh Jafari Dehkordi
Navaz Kharazian
Zahra Lorigooini
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) regulates many critical processes of plants. The effect of sodium hydrogen sulfide as H2S agent was investigated in basil plants under cadmium stress. A completely randomized design with three different concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM) of CdCl2 and two levels of NaHS (0 and 100 μM) was used in this study. Cadmium exposure reduced growth parameters and relative water content. Cd also caused a significant increase in ion leakage and higher oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 production. Although exogenous NaHS used in non-stressed control plants negatively affected growth and physiological parameters, it improved the root/shoot length ratio and fresh weight in basil plants under Cd 50 μM exposure. Moreover, NaHS alleviated deleterious effects of cadmium on ion leakage, relative water content and photosynthetic pigments of leaves. The activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were also enhanced by NaHS in plants under moderate cadmium stress. Our results show that NaHS 50 μM ameliorates growth retardation induced by cadmium 50 μM stress in basil plants, probably through regulating physiological parameters such as photosynthetic pigments content, relative water content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hakimeh Oloumi
Mansooreh Khodashenas

Editorial office

Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Managing Editor
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA;
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland;
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia;
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy;
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland;
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland;
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria;
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia;
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland;
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic;
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France;
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland;
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland;
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom;
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria;
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey;
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants

Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland



Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594


Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891


Instructions for authors

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study.
Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.

2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager:

Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland

Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.

3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.

4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).

5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.

6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.

7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.

8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.

9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.

10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.

11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.

12. Proof will be sent directly to the authors in electronic form as a pdf file. Authors’ corrections have to be inserted in the printout of the PDF proof. The corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor within six days via Editorial Manager or by e-mail. Proofs not returned promptly by authors will be corrected by the Editor.

13. Copyright. Exclusive copyright in all papers accepted for publication must be assigned to the Polish Academy of Sciences, but the Academy will not restrict the authors’ freedom to use material contained in the paper in other works by the authors (with reference where they were first published).

14. Offprints. A pdf of each paper is supplied to the authors free of charge.

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